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[smlnj] Diff of /sml/trunk/compiler/ElabData/prim/primop.sig
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Diff of /sml/trunk/compiler/ElabData/prim/primop.sig

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revision 4432, Tue Sep 19 21:40:38 2017 UTC revision 5022, Wed May 1 12:29:11 2019 UTC
# Line 4  Line 4 
4   * All rights reserved.   * All rights reserved.
5   *)   *)
6    
 (*********************************************************************  
                    Integer/Word Conversions Explained  
   
 All integer/word conversion operations are expressed using five  
 primitive conversion operators. Algebraic equations over these  
 operators are easy to define and can be used to simplify composition  
 of conversion operations.  
   
 The five basic conversion operators are (in all cases, we assume  
 that (n >= m):  
   
   TEST(n,m)     -- map an n-bit, 2's complement signed value to an  
                    m-bit, 2's complement signed value;  
                    raise Overflow if the value is too large.  
   
   TESTU(n,m)    -- map an unsigned n-bit value to an m-bit 2's  
                    complement value; raise Overflow if the value  
                    is too large.  
   
   EXTEND(m,n)   -- sign extend an m-bit value to a n-bit value  
   
   TRUNC(n,m)    -- truncate an n-bit value to an m-bit value.  
   
   COPY(m,n)     -- copy an m-bit value to an n-bit value.  
   
 TEST, TESTU, and TRUNC are used to go from large values to small  
 ones, and EXTEND and COPY are used to go from small values to  
 large. The operators EXTEND, TRUNC, and COPY are "pure," while TEST  
 and TESTU may raise Overflow.  
   
 Conversions where the sizes are the same can be simplified to copies:  
   
   TEST(n,n)     == COPY(n,n)  
   EXTEND(n,n)   == COPY(n,n)    Note: this does not apply to TESTU  
   TRUNC(n,n)    == COPY(n,n)  
   
 The translation of conversion operations in the Word32 and Word8  
 structures (for example) is given by:  
   
   Module        function     => Implemented by  
   ----------------------------------------------------------  
   Word32        toLargeInt    => TESTU(32,32)  
                 toLargeIntX   => EXTEND(32,32)          = COPY(32,32)  
                 fromLargeInt  => COPY(32,32)  
                 toInt         => TESTU(32,31)  
                 toIntX        => TEST(32,31)  
                 fromInt       => EXTEND(31,32)  
                 toLargeWord   => COPY(32,32)  
                 toLargeWordX  => EXTEND(32,32)          = COPY(32,32)  
                 fromLargeWord => TRUNC(32,32)           = COPY(32,32)  
   
   Word8         toLargeInt    => COPY(8,32)  
                 toLargeIntX   => EXTEND(8,32)  
                 fromLargeInt  => TRUNC(32,8)  
                 toInt         => COPY(8,31)  
                 toIntX        => EXTEND(8,31)  
                 fromInt       => TRUNC(31,8)  
                 toLargeWord   => COPY(8,32)  
                 toLargeWordX  => EXTEND(8,32)  
                 fromLargeWord => TRUNC(32,8)  
   
   
 Each operator composed with itself is itself, but with different parameters:  
   
   TEST(n,m) o TEST(p,n)         == TEST(p,m)  
   TESTU(n,m) o TESTU(p,n)       == TESTU(p,m)  
   EXTEND(n,m) o EXTEND(p,n)     == EXTEND(p,m)  
   TRUNC(n,m) o TRUNC(p,n)       == TRUNC(p,m)  
   COPY(n,m) o COPY(p,n)         == COPY(p,m)  
   
 The composition of these operators can be described by a simple algebra.  
   
   EXTEND(n,m) o COPY(p,n)       == COPY(p,m)   if (n > p)  
                                 == EXTEND(p,m) if (n = p)  
   COPY(n,m) o EXTEND(p,n)       == EXTEND(p,m) if (n = m)  
   
   TRUNC(n,m) o COPY(p,n)        == COPY(p,m)   if (m >= p)  
                                 == TRUNC(p,m)  if (m < p)  
   
   COPY(n,m) o TRUNC(p,n)        == TRUNC(p,m)  if (n = m)  
   
   TEST(n,m) o COPY(p,n)         == COPY(p,m)   if (m >= p)  
                                 == TEST(p,m)   if (m < p)  
   
   TESTU(n,m) o COPY(p,n)        == COPY(p,m)   if (m >= p)  
                                 == TESTU(p,m)  if (m < p)  
   
   COPY(n,m) o TEST(p,n)         == TEST(p,m)   if (n = m)  
   
   COPY(n,m) o TESTU(p,n)        == TESTU(p,m)  if (n = m)  
   
   TRUNC(n,m) o EXTEND(p,n)      == EXTEND(p,m) if (m >= p)  
                                 == TRUNC(p,m)  if (m < p)  
   
   TEST(n,m) o EXTEND(p,n)       == EXTEND(p,m) if (m >= p)  
                                 == TEST(p,m)   if (m < p)  
   
   TESTU(n,m) o EXTEND(p,n)      == EXTEND(p,m) if (m >= p)  
                                 == TESTU(p,m)  if (m < p)  
   
 For example, consider:  
         Word.toInt o Word.fromLargeWord o Word8.toLargeWord  
   
 This translates to:  
         TESTU(31,31) o TRUNC(32,31) o COPY(8,32)  
   
 and simplifies to:  
         TESTU(31,31) o COPY(8,31)  
   
 This further simplifies to:  
         COPY(8, 31)  
   
 Since both 8-bit and 31-bit quantities are tagged the same way, this  
 gets translated to a MOVE. With a smart register allocator that MOVE  
 can be eliminated.  
 *********************************************************************)  
   
7  signature PRIMOP =  signature PRIMOP =
8    sig    sig
9    
# Line 131  Line 14 
14        | FLOAT of int        | FLOAT of int
15  (* QUESTION: what about IntInf.int? *)  (* QUESTION: what about IntInf.int? *)
16    
17      (* arithmetic operations that may overflow; for the division operators,
18       * we assume that the second argument is never zero (i.e., an explicit
19       * test for zero is done before the operation).
20       *)
21      datatype arithop      datatype arithop
22        = ADD | SUB | MUL | NEG                   (* int or float *)        = IADD | ISUB | IMUL | IDIV | IMOD | IQUOT | IREM | INEG
       | FDIV | ABS | FSQRT | FSIN | FCOS | FTAN (* floating point only *)  
       | LSHIFT | RSHIFT | RSHIFTL               (* int only *)  
       | ANDB | ORB | XORB | NOTB                (* int only *)  
       | DIV | MOD | QUOT | REM                  (* int only *)  
23    
24      (* arithmetic operations that do not overflow; for the division operators,
25       * we assume that the second argument is never zero (i.e., an explicit
26       * test for zero is done before the operation).
27       *)
28        datatype pureop
29          = ADD | SUB | MUL | QUOT | REM | NEG
30          | LSHIFT | RSHIFT | RSHIFTL
31          | ORB | XORB | ANDB | NOTB
32          | FDIV | FABS | FSQRT | FSIN | FCOS | FTAN
33    
34      (* comparison operators *)
35      datatype cmpop      datatype cmpop
36        = GT | GTE | LT | LTE                     (* signed comparisons *)        = GT | GTE | LT | LTE | EQL | NEQ
       | LEU | LTU | GEU | GTU                   (* unsigned comparisons *)  
       | EQL | NEQ                               (* equality *)  
       | FSGN                                    (* floating point only *)  
37    
38    (* datatype primop:    (* datatype primop:
39     * Various primitive operations. Those that are designated "inline" (L:) in     * Various primitive operations. Those that are designated "inline" (L:) in
# Line 150  Line 41 
41     * as are the "checked=true" versions of NUMSUBSCRIPT and NUMUPDATE (L?:).     * as are the "checked=true" versions of NUMSUBSCRIPT and NUMUPDATE (L?:).
42     * "Environmental" primops (occurring in the InLine structure) are indicated     * "Environmental" primops (occurring in the InLine structure) are indicated
43     * by "E:" in the comment.     * by "E:" in the comment.
44       *
45       * See dev-notes/conversions.md for an explanation of the conversion operators.
46     *)     *)
47      datatype primop      datatype primop
48        = ARITH of {                              (* E: arithmetic ops *)        = IARITH of {                             (* E: integer arithmetic ops *)
49              oper: arithop, overflow: bool, kind: numkind              oper : arithop, sz : int            (* kind = INT sz *)
50              }
51          | PURE_ARITH of {                         (* E: arithmetic ops *)
52                oper : pureop, kind : numkind
53            }            }
54          | INLDIV of numkind                       (* E: integer div *)
55          | INLMOD of numkind                       (* E: integer mod *)
56          | INLQUOT of numkind                      (* E: integer/word quot *)
57          | INLREM of numkind                       (* E: integer/word rem *)
58        | INLLSHIFT of numkind                    (* E: left shift *)        | INLLSHIFT of numkind                    (* E: left shift *)
59        | INLRSHIFT of numkind                    (* E: right shift *)        | INLRSHIFT of numkind                    (* E: right shift *)
60        | INLRSHIFTL of numkind                   (* E: right shift logical *)        | INLRSHIFTL of numkind                   (* E: right shift logical *)
61        | CMP of {oper: cmpop, kind: numkind}     (* E: generic compare *)        | CMP of {oper: cmpop, kind: numkind}     (* E: generic compare *)
62          | FSGN of int                             (* E: floating point sign test *)
63          | INLCHR                                  (* E: inline int to char conversion *)
64        | TESTU of int * int                      (* E: conversions to int, e.g. testu_31_31 *)        | TESTU of int * int                      (* E: conversions to int, e.g. testu_31_31 *)
65        | TEST of int * int                       (* E: conversions to int, e.g. test_32_31_w *)        | TEST of int * int                       (* E: conversions to int, e.g. test_32_31_w *)
66        | TRUNC of int * int                      (* E: truncations to smaller int/word, e.g. trunc_32_31_i *)        | TRUNC of int * int                      (* E: truncations to smaller int/word, e.g. trunc_32_31_i *)
# Line 168  Line 70 
70        | TRUNC_INF of int                        (* E: intinf truncations, e.g. trunc_inf_31 *)        | TRUNC_INF of int                        (* E: intinf truncations, e.g. trunc_inf_31 *)
71        | EXTEND_INF of int                       (* E: intinf extensions, e.g. extend_8_inf *)        | EXTEND_INF of int                       (* E: intinf extensions, e.g. extend_8_inf *)
72        | COPY_INF of int                         (* E: conversions to intinf, e.g. copy_8_inf *)        | COPY_INF of int                         (* E: conversions to intinf, e.g. copy_8_inf *)
73        | ROUND of {                              (* E: floor, round *)        | REAL_TO_INT of {                        (* E: floor, round *)
74              floor: bool, fromkind: numkind, tokind: numkind              floor: bool, from: int, to: int
75            }            }
76        | REAL of {                               (* E: real, real32 *)        | INT_TO_REAL of {                        (* E: real, real32 *)
77              fromkind: numkind, tokind: numkind              from: int, to: int
78            }            }
79        | NUMSUBSCRIPT of {                       (* E: L?: ordof, etc. *)        | NUMSUBSCRIPT of {                       (* E: L?: ordof, etc. *)
80              kind: numkind, checked: bool, immutable: bool              kind: numkind, checked: bool, immutable: bool
# Line 193  Line 95 
95        | CAST                                    (* E: cast *)        | CAST                                    (* E: cast *)
96        | GETHDLR | SETHDLR                       (* E: get/set exn handler pointer *)        | GETHDLR | SETHDLR                       (* E: get/set exn handler pointer *)
97        | GETVAR | SETVAR                         (* E: get/set var register *)        | GETVAR | SETVAR                         (* E: get/set var register *)
       | GETPSEUDO | SETPSEUDO                   (* E: get/set pseudo registers *)  
       | SETMARK | DISPOSE                       (* E: capture/dispose frames *)  
98        | MAKEREF                                 (* E: allocate a ref cell *)        | MAKEREF                                 (* E: allocate a ref cell *)
99        | CALLCC | CAPTURE | THROW                (* E: continuation operations *)        | CALLCC | CAPTURE | THROW                (* E: continuation operations *)
100        | ISOLATE                                 (* E: isolating a function *)        | ISOLATE                                 (* E: isolating a function *)
# Line 243  Line 143 
143     (* Allocate uninitialized storage on the heap.     (* Allocate uninitialized storage on the heap.
144      * The record is meant to hold short-lived C objects, i.e., they      * The record is meant to hold short-lived C objects, i.e., they
145      * are not ML pointers.  The representation is      * are not ML pointers.  The representation is
146      * the same as RECORD with tag tag_raw32 or tag_fblock.      * the same as RECORD with tag tag_raw or tag_raw64.
147      *)      *)
148        | RAW_RECORD of { fblock: bool }  (* E: *)        | RAW_RECORD of { align64 : bool }  (* E: *)
149    
150      (* non-environmental primops (not found in InLine) *)      (* non-environmental primops (not found in InLine) *)
151        | UNBOXEDASSIGN                   (* assignment to integer reference *)        | UNBOXEDASSIGN                   (* assignment to integer reference *)
# Line 268  Line 168 
168          CCR64 |                         (* passed as real64 *)          CCR64 |                         (* passed as real64 *)
169          CCML                            (* passed as Unsafe.Object.object *)          CCML                            (* passed as Unsafe.Object.object *)
170    
     val IADD : primop  (* default integer addition *)  
     val ISUB : primop  (* default integer subtraction *)  
     val IMUL : primop  
     val IDIV : primop  
     val INEG : primop  
   
     val FEQLd : primop  
     val IEQL : primop  
     val INEQ : primop  
     val IGT : primop  
     val ILT : primop  
     val ILE : primop  
     val IGE : primop  
   
     val prNumkind : numkind -> string  
     val prPrimop: primop -> string  
     val mayRaise : primop -> bool  
   
   (* This should return more than just a boolean.  
    * True means "can not be dead-code eliminated" *)  
     val effect : primop -> bool  
   
171    end (* signature PRIM_OP *)    end (* signature PRIM_OP *)
   

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