Home My Page Projects Code Snippets Project Openings SML/NJ
Summary Activity Forums Tracker Lists Tasks Docs Surveys News SCM Files

SCM Repository

[smlnj] View of /sml/trunk/src/MLRISC/Doc/latex/delayslots.tex
ViewVC logotype

View of /sml/trunk/src/MLRISC/Doc/latex/delayslots.tex

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 651 - (download) (as text) (annotate)
Thu Jun 1 18:34:03 2000 UTC (19 years, 2 months ago) by monnier
File size: 6586 byte(s)
bring revisions from the vendor branch to the trunk
\section{Delay Slot Filling}
\subsection{ Overview }

    Superscalar architectures such as the Sparc, MIPS, and PA-RISC
contain delayed branch and/or load instructions.  
Delay slot filling is necessary 
task of the back end to keep the instruction pipelines busy.  To accomodate
the intricate semantics of branch delay slot in various architectures, 
MLRISC uses the following very general framework for dealing with 
delayed instructions. 
   
\begin{description}
  \item[Instruction representation]
      To make it easy to deal with instruction with delay slot, MLRISC allow
       the following extensions to instruction representations.
  \begin{itemize}
    \item Instructions with delay slot may have a
        \begin{color}{#aa0000}nop\end{color} flag.   When this flag is true
        the delay slot is assumed to be filled with a NOP instruction.
    \item Instructions with delay slots that can be nullified may have a
        \begin{color}{#aa0000}nullified\end{color} flag.   
       When this flag is true the branch delay slot is assumed to be
       nullified.  
    \end{itemize}
   \item[Nullification semantics]
     Unfortunately, nullification semantics
        in architectures vary. In general, MLRISC allows the following
        additional nullification characteristics to be specified. 
     \begin{itemize}
     \item Nullification can be specified as illegal; this is needed 
           because some instructions can not be nullified
     \item When nullification is enabled, the semantics of the delay slot
          instruction may depend on the direction of the branch, and whether
          a conditional test succeeds. 
     \item Certain class of instructions may be declared to be illegal
          to fit into certain class of delay slots.
     \end{itemize}
\end{description} 

For example, conditional branch instructions on the Sparc are defined 
as follows:
\begin{verbatim}
   Bicc of {b:branch, a:bool, label:Label.label, nop:bool}
     asm: ``b<b><a>\t<label><nop>''
     padding: nop = true
     nullified: a = true and (case b of I.BA => false | _ => true)
     delayslot candidate: false
\end{verbatim}
\noindent where \sml{a} is \emph{annul} flag and \sml{nop} is the nop 
flag (see \mlrischref{sparc/sparc.md}{the Sparc machine description}).
A constructor term
\begin{SML}
   Bicc\{b=BE, a=true, label=label, nop=true\}
\end{SML}
denotes the instruction sequence
\begin{verbatim}
   be,a label
   nop
\end{verbatim}
while
\begin{SML}
   Bicc\{b=BE, a=false, label=label, nop=false\}
\end{SML}
denotes 
\begin{verbatim}
   be label
\end{verbatim}


\subsection{The Interface}

Architecture information about how delay slot filling is to be performed
is described in the signature
\mlrischref{backpatch/delaySlotProps.sig}{DELAY\_SLOT\_PROPERTIES}.
\begin{SML}
signature DELAY_SLOT_PROPERTIES =
sig
   structure I : INSTRUCTIONS

   datatype delay_slot = 
     D_NONE   | D_ERROR   | D_ALWAYS  
   | D_TAKEN  | D_FALLTHRU 

   val delaySlotSize : int 
   val delaySlot : \{ instr : I.instruction, backward : bool \} -> 
		   \{ n    : bool,      
		     nOn  : delay_slot,
		     nOff : delay_slot,
		     nop  : bool      
		   \} 
   val enableDelaySlot : 
	 \{instr : I.instruction, n:bool, nop:bool\} -> I.instruction
   val conflict : 
         \{regmap:int->int,src:I.instruction,dst:I.instruction\} -> bool
   val delaySlotCandidate : 
         \{ jmp : I.instruction, delaySlot : I.instruction \} -> bool
   val setTarget : I.instruction * Label.label -> I.instruction
end
\end{SML}

The components of this signature are:
\begin{description}
  \item[delay\_slot] This datatype describes properties related to a 
      delay slot.
   \begin{description}
     \item[D\_NONE]   This indicates that no delay slot is possible.
     \item[D\_ERROR]  This indicates that it is an error 
     \item[D\_ALWAYS] This indicates that the delay slot is always active
     \item[D\_TAKEN]  This indicates that the 
              delay slot is only active when branch is taken
     \item[D\_FALLTHRU]  This indicates that the delay slot 
       is only active when branch is not taken 
   \end{description} 
  \item[delaySlotSize] This is size of delay slot in bytes.

  \item[delaySlot]  This method takes an instruction \sml{instr}
      and a flag indicating whether the branch is \sml{backward},
     and returns the delay slot properties of an instruction.   The
      properties is described by four fields.
      \begin{description}
        \item[n : bool]  This bit is if the nullified bit in the
   instruction is currently set.
        \item[nOn : delay\_slot] This field indicates the delay slot 
          type when the instruction is nullified.
        \item[nOff : delay\_slot] This field indiciates the delay slot
         type when the instruction is not nullified. 
         \item[nop  : bool] This bit indicates whether there is an 
implicit padded nop.
      \end{description}


   \item[enableDelaySlot]
       This method set the nullification and nop flags of an instruction.

   \item[conflict] This method checks whether there are any conflicts
      between instruction \sml{src} and \sml{dst}.
   \item[delaySlotCandidate] 
       This method checks whether instruction \sml{delaySlot} is within the
       class of instructions that can fit within the delay slot of 
       instruction \sml{jmp}.

   \item[setTarget]
       This method changes the branch target of an instruction.
\end{description}

\subsubsection{Examples}
  For example,
\begin{SML}
    delaySlot\{instr=instr, backward=true\} =
    \{n=true, nOn=D_ERROR, nOff=D_ALWAYS, nop=true\}
\end{SML}
\noindent means that the instruction nullification bit is on, the
the nullification cannot be turned off, delay slot is always active 
(when not nullified), and there is currently an implicit padded nop.

\begin{SML}
   delaySlot\{instr=instr, backward=false\} =
  \{n=false, nOn=D_NONE, nOff=D_TAKEN, nop=false\}
\end{SML}
\noindent means that the nullification bit is off, the delay slot
is inactive when the nullification bit is off,  the delay slot is only
active when the (forward) branch is taken when \sml{instr} is 
not-nullified, and there
is no implicitly padded nop.

\begin{SML}
   delaySlot\{instr=instr, backward=true\} =
  \{n=true, nOn=D_TAKEN, nOff=D_ALWAYS, nop=true\}
\end{SML}
\noindent means that the nullification bit is on, the delay slot
is active on a taken (backward) branch when the nullification bit is off, 
the delay slot is always active when \sml{instr} is not-nullified, 
and there is currently an implicitly padded nop.


root@smlnj-gforge.cs.uchicago.edu
ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.0.0