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Thu Jun 1 18:34:03 2000 UTC (20 years, 4 months ago) by monnier
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bring revisions from the vendor branch to the trunk
 \section{Register Allocation}
  All the optimization modules are written in a generic fashion but
  parameterized over architecture and client information. The Standard
  ML module system is a central mechanism to the design and
  organization of MLRISC. Parameterized modules in Standard ML are
provided by \newdef{functors}, that takes the
specification of input modules and produces a module that matches some
output specification. In particular, SML/NJ modules are 
\emph{higher order}, which means that a functor can yield functors as a
result. I will use register allocation as an example.

\image{Back end optimizations}{pictures/png/hof-1.png}{align=left}

  The register allocator is written has a higher order functor which
  when applied to suitable arguments produces an integer or floating
  point register allocator. The figure is simplifed because the output
  functor is not restricted to integer and floating point allocators
  but could also be other types of allocators, for example, condition
  code.  The integer and floating point register allocators are
  functors that only take \emph{client specific} parameters as
  input, whereas the higher-order takes architectural parameters as
  input. The client specific parameters include:
  nFreeRegs : int
  dedicated : int list
  spill : ..
  reload : ..

    \item[\sml{nFreeRegs}] is the number of free registers or
    essentially the number of colors available for coloring the
    interference graph.

    \item[\sml{dedicated}] is the list of dedicated registers. It
    is useful to exclude these from the graph-color process to reduce
    the size of the data structures created.

    \item[\sml{spill/reload}] are functions that describe how to
    spill and reload registers that need to be spilled or reloaded in
    an instruction. These two functions are perhaps the most
    complicated pieces of information that need to be supplied by a
    client of MLRISC.

  The architecture specific parameters supplied to the higher-order
  functor include:
  firstPseudoReg : int
  maxPseudoR : unit -> int
  defUse : instruction -> (int list * int list)

    \item[\sml{firstPseudoR}] is an integer representing the first
    pseudo register. Any register below this value is a physical
    \item[\sml{maxPseudoR}] is a function that returns an
    integer indicating the number of the highest pseudo-register that
    has been used in the program. This number is useful in estimating
    the intial size of various tables.

    \item[\sml{defUse}] is a function that returns the
    registers defined and used by an instruction.

  These parameters are largely self explanatory, however, there are
  addition architectural parameters that relate to the internal
  representation of instructions that would be ugly to explain. For
  example there is the need for a module that does liveness analysis
  over the register class that is being allocated. This type of
  complexity can be shielded from a user.  For the DEC Alpha the
  situation is as shown in the figure:

  \image{Back end optimizations}{pictures/png/hof-2.png}{align=center}

  The client only sees the functors on the right, to which only client
  specific information need be provided. There is the illusion of a
  dedicated DEC Alpha integer and floating point register
  allocator. There are several advantages to this:
    \item The architectural parameters that are implementation specific
do not need to be explained to a user, and are supplied by someone
that intimately understands the port to the target architecture. 

     \item The number of parameters that a client supplies is

     \item The parameters that the client supplies is restricted to
things that concern the front end. 

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