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<H1>
<FONT COLOR="#aa0000">Architecture of MLRISC</FONT></H1></CENTER>

<h2> Core Components </h2>

  The core components of MLRISC allow the client to quickly construct 
an optimizing backend for various architectures.  These components include:

<ul>
  <li> The MLTREE language, which is a RTL-like intermediate language
       that is used to communicate to the MLRISC system.  A client is
       responsible for writing the translator that generates MLTREE from
       the source program.
  <li> Instruction selection modules, which generates target machine 
       instructions from the MLTREE intermediate language.
  <li> The Register Allocator, which performs register allocation.
  <li> Assemblers, which emits assembly code.
</ul>

For systems that require direct machine code generation, the following
modules are included:
<ul>
  <li> Span dependency resolution modules, which compute addresses    
       frmo symbolic addresses,
       fill delay slots, and expand instructions that are 
       <font color="#ff0000">span dependent</font>.
  <li> Machine code emitters, which emit machine code into a binary stream.
</ul>

<h2> Optimization Modules </h2>

In addition, MLRISC has been enhanced to support various types of
machine level optimizations.  These include:

<ul>
  <li> Core optimizations, which various types of control flow transformation
  <li> SSA based scalar optimizations
  <li> ILP optimizations for superscalars
  <li> ILP optimizations for VLIW/EPIC architectures
  <li> GC safety analysis
</ul>

<h2> Basic Concepts </h2>

  Basic concepts in MLRISC are: 
<ul>
    <LI> <A href="instructions.html"> Instructions </A> --
    the instruction set of the target architecture.
    <LI> <A href="cells.html"> Cells</A> -- which describes registers,
memory and other mutable resources in the machine.
    <LI> <A href="regions.html"> Regions</A> -- a client defined
   abstract type used to represent aliasing information available from
the front-end.
    <LI> <A href="constants.html"> Constants</A> -- a client defined
   place holder used to represent constants whose values are unknown 
   in the front-end. 
    <LI> <A href="pseudo-ops.html"> Pseudo Ops</A> -- a client defined
      
    <LI> <A href="annotations.html"> Annotations </A> -- this is
   a generic mechinism for propagating information in the MLRISC sstem.
   The client may attach arbitrary annotation of various granularity 
   to MLRISC's program representation,
   which can then be propagated to later phases.
   These can be information related to profiling frequency, dependence, 
   comments, and/or types.
   The same mechanism is also used to propagate 
   analysis information one optimization phase to 
   another.
    <LI> <A href="streams.html"> Instruction Streams </A> -- an abstraction
   for describing a stream of instructions.  Instruction streams are
   used to connect modules such as instruction selection,  assembler, 
   machine code emitter, and 
   control flow graph builder.
   <LI> <A href="regmap.html"> Regmap </A> -- a mapping between registers
     names.  MLRISC register allocators represent the result of register
   allocation as a regmap.
   <LI> <A href="labels.html"> Labels </A> -- a type representing
symbolic labels.
   <LI> <A href="labelexp.html"> Label Expressions </A> -- a type representing
     constant expressions
    involving symbolic labels.
</ul>

<h2> How Things Are Fit Together </h2>

  MLRISC uses two different program representations, clusters and MLRISC IR.
<ul>
  <li> <a href="cluster.html">Cluster</a> is light-weight representation
that is used when only the most basic optimizations are required.
  <li> <a href="mlrisc-ir.html"> MLRISC IR</a> is more heavy-weight
   representation that is built from the 
    <a href="graphs.html"> MLRISC graph library </a> and the
    <a href="compiler-graphs.html"> MLRISC compiler graph library </a>.
   MLRISC IR allows more complex transformations and analysis of the
   program graph.
</ul>
Conversion modules between the two representations are provided.

In general MLRISC optimization phases are transformations applied on one
of these representations.  Optimizations may be chained together to form
a compiler backend.  For example, a minimal backend consists of
<ul>
  <li> the instruction selection module, which translates 
<a href="mltree.html"> MLTree </a> into target instructions,
  <li> the flowgraph builder, which conversts a stream of target instructions
   into a cluster,
  <li> the register allocator, which performs register allocation, and
  <li> the assembly code emitter, which generates assembly output
</ul>

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