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Revision 1185 - (download) (annotate)
Mon Apr 1 22:06:47 2002 UTC (17 years, 6 months ago) by blume
File size: 83561 byte(s)
more div-related improvements to the x86 instruction selector
(* x86.sml
 *
 * COPYRIGHT (c) 1998 Bell Laboratories.
 * 
 * This is a revised version that takes into account of
 * the extended x86 instruction set, and has better handling of
 * non-standard types.  I've factored out the integer/floating point 
 * comparison code, added optimizations for conditional moves. 
 * The latter generates SETcc and CMOVcc (Pentium Pro only) instructions. 
 * To avoid problems, I have tried to incorporate as much of 
 * Lal's original magic incantations as possible.
 *
 * Some changes:
 *
 *  1.  REMU/REMS are now supported 
 *  2.  COND is supported by generating SETcc and/or CMOVcc; this
 *      may require at least a Pentium II to work.
 *  3.  Division by a constant has been optimized.   Division by
 *      a power of 2 generates SHRL or SARL.
 *  4.  Better addressing mode selection has been implemented.  This should
 *      improve array indexing on SML/NJ.
 *  5.  Generate testl/testb instead of andl whenever appropriate.  This
 *      is recommended by the Intel Optimization Guide and seems to improve
 *      boxity tests on SML/NJ.
 *
 * More changes for floating point: 
 *  A new mode is implemented which generates pseudo 3-address instructions
 * for floating point.  These instructions are register allocated the
 * normal way, with the virtual registers mapped onto a set of pseudo
 * %fp registers.  These registers are then mapped onto the %st registers
 * with a new postprocessing phase.
 *
 * -- Allen
 *)
local
   val rewriteMemReg = true (* should we rewrite memRegs *)
   val enableFastFPMode = true (* set this to false to disable the mode *)
in

functor X86
  (structure X86Instr : X86INSTR
   structure MLTreeUtils : MLTREE_UTILS
			where T = X86Instr.T
   structure ExtensionComp : MLTREE_EXTENSION_COMP
     			where I = X86Instr and T = X86Instr.T
   structure MLTreeStream : MLTREE_STREAM
			where T = ExtensionComp.T
    datatype arch = Pentium | PentiumPro | PentiumII | PentiumIII
    val arch : arch ref
    val cvti2f : 
         {ty: X86Instr.T.ty, 
          src: X86Instr.operand, 
             (* source operand, guaranteed to be non-memory! *)
          an: Annotations.annotations ref (* cluster annotations *)
         } -> 
         {instrs : X86Instr.instruction list,(* the instructions *)
          tempMem: X86Instr.operand,         (* temporary for CVTI2F *)
          cleanup: X86Instr.instruction list (* cleanup code *)
         }
    (* When the following flag is set, we allocate floating point registers
     * directly on the floating point stack
     *)
    val fast_floating_point : bool ref 
  ) : sig include MLTREECOMP 
          val rewriteMemReg : bool
      end = 
struct
  structure I = X86Instr
  structure T = I.T
  structure TS = ExtensionComp.TS
  structure C = I.C
  structure Shuffle = Shuffle(I)
  structure W32 = Word32
  structure A = MLRiscAnnotations
  structure CFG = ExtensionComp.CFG
  structure CB = CellsBasis

  type instrStream = (I.instruction,C.cellset,CFG.cfg) TS.stream
  type mltreeStream = (T.stm,T.mlrisc list,CFG.cfg) TS.stream

  datatype kind = REAL | INTEGER
 
  structure Gen = MLTreeGen
     (structure T = T
      structure Cells = C
      val intTy = 32
      val naturalWidths = [32]
      datatype rep = SE | ZE | NEITHER
      val rep = NEITHER
     )

  fun error msg = MLRiscErrorMsg.error("X86",msg)

  (* Should we perform automatic MemReg translation?  
   * If this is on, we can avoid doing RewritePseudo phase entirely.
   *)
  val rewriteMemReg = rewriteMemReg

  (* The following hardcoded *)
  fun isMemReg r = rewriteMemReg andalso 
                   let val r = CB.registerNum r
                   in  r >= 8 andalso r < 32 
                   end
  fun isFMemReg r = if enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point
                    then let val r = CB.registerNum r
                         in r >= 8 andalso r < 32 end
                    else true
  val isAnyFMemReg = List.exists (fn r => 
                                  let val r = CB.registerNum r  
                                  in  r >= 8 andalso r < 32 end
                                 )

  val ST0 = C.ST 0
  val ST7 = C.ST 7
  val one = T.I.int_1

  val opcodes8 = {INC=I.INCB,DEC=I.DECB,ADD=I.ADDB,SUB=I.SUBB,
                  NOT=I.NOTB,NEG=I.NEGB,
                  SHL=I.SHLB,SHR=I.SHRB,SAR=I.SARB,
                  OR=I.ORB,AND=I.ANDB,XOR=I.XORB}
  val opcodes16 = {INC=I.INCW,DEC=I.DECW,ADD=I.ADDW,SUB=I.SUBW,
                   NOT=I.NOTW,NEG=I.NEGW,
                   SHL=I.SHLW,SHR=I.SHRW,SAR=I.SARW,
                   OR=I.ORW,AND=I.ANDW,XOR=I.XORW}
  val opcodes32 = {INC=I.INCL,DEC=I.DECL,ADD=I.ADDL,SUB=I.SUBL,
                   NOT=I.NOTL,NEG=I.NEGL,
                   SHL=I.SHLL,SHR=I.SHRL,SAR=I.SARL,
                   OR=I.ORL,AND=I.ANDL,XOR=I.XORL}

  (* 
   * The code generator 
   *)
  fun selectInstructions 
       (instrStream as
        TS.S.STREAM{emit=emitInstruction,defineLabel,entryLabel,pseudoOp,
		    annotation,getAnnotations,beginCluster,endCluster,exitBlock,comment,...}) =
  let 
      val emit = emitInstruction o I.INSTR
      exception EA

      (* label where a trap is generated -- one per cluster *)
      val trapLabel = ref (NONE: (I.instruction * Label.label) option)

      (* flag floating point generation *)
      val floatingPointUsed = ref false

      (* effective address of an integer register *)
      fun IntReg r = if isMemReg r then I.MemReg r else I.Direct r
      and RealReg r = if isFMemReg r then I.FDirect r else I.FPR r

      (* Add an overflow trap *)
      fun trap() =
      let 
	  val jmp = 
            case !trapLabel of 
              NONE => let val label = Label.label "trap" ()
                          val jmp   = 
			      I.ANNOTATION{i=I.jcc{cond=I.O, 
						   opnd=I.ImmedLabel(T.LABEL label)},
					   a=MLRiscAnnotations.BRANCHPROB (Probability.unlikely)}
                      in  trapLabel := SOME(jmp, label); jmp end
            | SOME(jmp, _) => jmp
      in  emitInstruction jmp end

      val newReg  = C.newReg
      val newFreg = C.newFreg

      fun fsize 32 = I.FP32
        | fsize 64 = I.FP64
        | fsize 80 = I.FP80
        | fsize _  = error "fsize"

      (* mark an expression with a list of annotations *) 
      fun mark'(i,[]) = emitInstruction(i)
        | mark'(i,a::an) = mark'(I.ANNOTATION{i=i,a=a},an) 

      (* annotate an expression and emit it *)
      fun mark(i,an) = mark'(I.INSTR i,an)

      val emits = app emitInstruction

      (* emit parallel copies for integers 
       * Translates parallel copies that involve memregs into 
       * individual copies.
       *)
      fun copy([], [], an) = ()
        | copy(dst, src, an) = 
          let fun mvInstr{dst as I.MemReg rd, src as I.MemReg rs} = 
                  if CB.sameColor(rd,rs) then [] else
                  let val tmpR = I.Direct(newReg())
                  in  [I.move{mvOp=I.MOVL, src=src, dst=tmpR},
                       I.move{mvOp=I.MOVL, src=tmpR, dst=dst}]
                  end
                | mvInstr{dst=I.Direct rd, src=I.Direct rs} = 
                    if CB.sameColor(rd,rs) then [] 
                    else [I.COPY{k=CB.GP, sz=32, dst=[rd], src=[rs], tmp=NONE}]
                | mvInstr{dst, src} = [I.move{mvOp=I.MOVL, src=src, dst=dst}]
          in
             emits (Shuffle.shuffle{mvInstr=mvInstr, ea=IntReg}
               {tmp=SOME(I.Direct(newReg())),
                dst=dst, src=src})
          end
 
      (* conversions *)
      val itow = Word.fromInt
      val wtoi = Word.toInt
      fun toInt32 i = T.I.toInt32(32, i)
      val w32toi32 = Word32.toLargeIntX 
      val i32tow32 = Word32.fromLargeInt

      (* One day, this is going to bite us when precision(LargeInt)>32 *)
      fun wToInt32 w = Int32.fromLarge(Word32.toLargeIntX w)

      (* some useful registers *)
      val eax = I.Direct(C.eax)
      val ecx = I.Direct(C.ecx)
      val edx = I.Direct(C.edx)

      fun immedLabel lab = I.ImmedLabel(T.LABEL lab)
 
      (* Is the expression zero? *)
      fun isZero(T.LI z) = T.I.isZero z 
        | isZero(T.MARK(e,a)) = isZero e
        | isZero _ = false
       (* Does the expression set the zero bit? 
        * WARNING: we assume these things are not optimized out!
        *)
      fun setZeroBit(T.ANDB _)     = true
        | setZeroBit(T.ORB _)      = true
        | setZeroBit(T.XORB _)     = true
        | setZeroBit(T.SRA _)      = true
        | setZeroBit(T.SRL _)      = true
        | setZeroBit(T.SLL _)      = true
        | setZeroBit(T.SUB _)      = true
        | setZeroBit(T.ADDT _)     = true
        | setZeroBit(T.SUBT _)     = true
        | setZeroBit(T.MARK(e, _)) = setZeroBit e
        | setZeroBit _             = false

      fun setZeroBit2(T.ANDB _)     = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.ORB _)      = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.XORB _)     = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.SRA _)      = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.SRL _)      = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.SLL _)      = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.ADD(32, _, _)) = true (* can't use leal! *)
        | setZeroBit2(T.SUB _)      = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.ADDT _)     = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.SUBT _)     = true
        | setZeroBit2(T.MARK(e, _)) = setZeroBit2 e
        | setZeroBit2 _             = false

      (* emit parallel copies for floating point 
       * Normal version.
       *)
      fun fcopy'(fty, [], [], _) = ()
        | fcopy'(fty, dst as [_], src as [_], an) = 
            mark'(I.COPY{k=CB.FP, sz=fty, dst=dst,src=src,tmp=NONE}, an)
        | fcopy'(fty, dst, src, an) = 
            mark'(I.COPY{k=CB.FP, sz=fty, dst=dst,src=src,tmp=SOME(I.FDirect(newFreg()))}, an)

      (* emit parallel copies for floating point.
       * Fast version.
       * Translates parallel copies that involve memregs into 
       * individual copies.
       *)
       
      fun fcopy''(fty, [], [], _) = ()
        | fcopy''(fty, dst, src, an) = 
          if true orelse isAnyFMemReg dst orelse isAnyFMemReg src then
          let val fsize = fsize fty
              fun mvInstr{dst, src} = [I.fmove{fsize=fsize, src=src, dst=dst}]
          in
              emits (Shuffle.shuffle{mvInstr=mvInstr, ea=RealReg}
                {tmp=case dst of
                       [_] => NONE
                     |  _  => SOME(I.FPR(newReg())),
                 dst=dst, src=src})
          end
          else
            mark'(I.COPY{k=CB.FP, sz=fty, dst=dst,
			src=src,tmp=
                         case dst of
                           [_] => NONE
                         | _   => SOME(I.FPR(newFreg()))}, an)
 
      fun fcopy x = if enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point 
                    then fcopy'' x else fcopy' x

      (* Translates MLTREE condition code to x86 condition code *)
      fun cond T.LT = I.LT | cond T.LTU = I.B
        | cond T.LE = I.LE | cond T.LEU = I.BE
        | cond T.EQ = I.EQ | cond T.NE  = I.NE
        | cond T.GE = I.GE | cond T.GEU = I.AE
        | cond T.GT = I.GT | cond T.GTU = I.A
	| cond cc = error(concat["cond(", T.Basis.condToString cc, ")"])

      fun zero dst = emit(I.BINARY{binOp=I.XORL, src=dst, dst=dst})

      (* Move and annotate *) 
      fun move'(src as I.Direct s, dst as I.Direct d, an) =
          if CB.sameColor(s,d) then ()
          else mark'(I.COPY{k=CB.GP, sz=32, dst=[d], src=[s], tmp=NONE}, an)
        | move'(I.Immed 0, dst as I.Direct d, an) = 
            mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.XORL, src=dst, dst=dst}, an)
        | move'(src, dst, an) = mark(I.MOVE{mvOp=I.MOVL, src=src, dst=dst}, an)

      (* Move only! *)  
      fun move(src, dst) = move'(src, dst, [])

      val readonly = I.Region.readonly

      (* 
       * Compute an effective address.  
       *)
      fun address(ea, mem) = let 
          (* Keep building a bigger and bigger effective address expressions 
           * The input is a list of trees
           * b -- base
           * i -- index
           * s -- scale
           * d -- immed displacement
           *)
          fun doEA([], b, i, s, d) = makeAddressingMode(b, i, s, d)
            | doEA(t::trees, b, i, s, d) =
              (case t of 
                 T.LI n   => doEAImmed(trees, toInt32 n, b, i, s, d)
               | T.CONST _ => doEALabel(trees, t, b, i, s, d)
               | T.LABEL _ => doEALabel(trees, t, b, i, s, d)
               | T.LABEXP le => doEALabel(trees, le, b, i, s, d)
               | T.ADD(32, t1, t2 as T.REG(_,r)) => 
                    if isMemReg r then doEA(t2::t1::trees, b, i, s, d)
                    else doEA(t1::t2::trees, b, i, s, d)
               | T.ADD(32, t1, t2) => doEA(t1::t2::trees, b, i, s, d)
               | T.SUB(32, t1, T.LI n) => 
		    doEA(t1::T.LI(T.I.NEG(32,n))::trees, b, i, s, d)
	       | T.SLL(32, t1, T.LI n) => let
		    val n = T.I.toInt(32, n)
                 in 
		   case n
		   of 0 => displace(trees, t1, b, i, s, d)
	  	    | 1 => indexed(trees, t1, t, 1, b, i, s, d)
	  	    | 2 => indexed(trees, t1, t, 2, b, i, s, d)
		    | 3 => indexed(trees, t1, t, 3, b, i, s, d)
		    | _ => displace(trees, t, b, i, s, d)
                 end
               | t => displace(trees, t, b, i, s, d)
              ) 

          (* Add an immed constant *)
          and doEAImmed(trees, 0, b, i, s, d) = doEA(trees, b, i, s, d)
            | doEAImmed(trees, n, b, i, s, I.Immed m) = 
                 doEA(trees, b, i, s, I.Immed(n+m))
            | doEAImmed(trees, n, b, i, s, I.ImmedLabel le) = 
                 doEA(trees, b, i, s, 
                      I.ImmedLabel(T.ADD(32,le,T.LI(T.I.fromInt32(32, n)))))
            | doEAImmed(trees, n, b, i, s, _) = error "doEAImmed"

          (* Add a label expression *)
          and doEALabel(trees, le, b, i, s, I.Immed 0) = 
                 doEA(trees, b, i, s, I.ImmedLabel le)
            | doEALabel(trees, le, b, i, s, I.Immed m) = 
                 doEA(trees, b, i, s, 
                      I.ImmedLabel(T.ADD(32,le,T.LI(T.I.fromInt32(32, m))))
                      handle Overflow => error "doEALabel: constant too large")
            | doEALabel(trees, le, b, i, s, I.ImmedLabel le') = 
                 doEA(trees, b, i, s, I.ImmedLabel(T.ADD(32,le,le')))
            | doEALabel(trees, le, b, i, s, _) = error "doEALabel"

          and makeAddressingMode(NONE, NONE, _, disp) = disp
            | makeAddressingMode(SOME base, NONE, _, disp) = 
                I.Displace{base=base, disp=disp, mem=mem}
            | makeAddressingMode(base, SOME index, scale, disp) = 
                I.Indexed{base=base, index=index, scale=scale,
                          disp=disp, mem=mem}

          (* generate code for tree and ensure that it is not in %esp *)
          and exprNotEsp tree =
              let val r = expr tree
              in  if CB.sameColor(r, C.esp) then 
                     let val tmp = newReg()
                     in  move(I.Direct r, I.Direct tmp); tmp end
                  else r
              end

          (* Add a base register *)
          and displace(trees, t, NONE, i, s, d) =  (* no base yet *)
               doEA(trees, SOME(expr t), i, s, d)
            | displace(trees, t, b as SOME base, NONE, _, d) = (* no index *)
              (* make t the index, but make sure that it is not %esp! *)
              let val i = expr t
              in  if CB.sameColor(i, C.esp) then
                    (* swap base and index *)
                    if CB.sameColor(base, C.esp) then
                       doEA(trees, SOME i, b, 0, d)
                    else  (* base and index = %esp! *)
                       let val index = newReg()
                       in  move(I.Direct i, I.Direct index);
                           doEA(trees, b, SOME index, 0, d)
                       end
                  else
                    doEA(trees, b, SOME i, 0, d)
              end
            | displace(trees, t, SOME base, i, s, d) = (* base and index *) 
              let val b = expr(T.ADD(32,T.REG(32,base),t))
              in  doEA(trees, SOME b, i, s, d) end

          (* Add an indexed register *)
          and indexed(trees, t, t0, scale, b, NONE, _, d) = (* no index yet *)
               doEA(trees, b, SOME(exprNotEsp t), scale, d)
            | indexed(trees, _, t0, _, NONE, i, s, d) = (* no base *)
               doEA(trees, SOME(expr t0), i, s, d)
            | indexed(trees, _, t0, _, SOME base, i, s, d) = (*base and index*)
               let val b = expr(T.ADD(32, t0, T.REG(32, base)))
               in  doEA(trees, SOME b, i, s, d) end
                  
      in  case doEA([ea], NONE, NONE, 0, I.Immed 0) of 
            I.Immed _ => raise EA
          | I.ImmedLabel le => I.LabelEA le
          | ea => ea
      end (* address *)

          (* reduce an expression into an operand *)
      and operand(T.LI i) = I.Immed(toInt32(i)) 
        | operand(x as (T.CONST _ | T.LABEL _)) = I.ImmedLabel x
        | operand(T.LABEXP le) = I.ImmedLabel le
        | operand(T.REG(_,r)) = IntReg r
        | operand(T.LOAD(32,ea,mem)) = address(ea, mem)
        | operand(t) = I.Direct(expr t)

      and moveToReg(opnd) =
          let val dst = I.Direct(newReg())
          in  move(opnd, dst); dst
          end

      and reduceOpnd(I.Direct r) = r
        | reduceOpnd opnd =
          let val dst = newReg()
          in  move(opnd, I.Direct dst); dst
          end

      (* ensure that the operand is either an immed or register *)
      and immedOrReg(opnd as I.Displace _) = moveToReg opnd
        | immedOrReg(opnd as I.Indexed _)  = moveToReg opnd
        | immedOrReg(opnd as I.MemReg _)   = moveToReg opnd
        | immedOrReg(opnd as I.LabelEA _)  = moveToReg opnd
        | immedOrReg opnd  = opnd

      and isImmediate(I.Immed _) = true
        | isImmediate(I.ImmedLabel _) = true
        | isImmediate _ = false

      and regOrMem opnd = if isImmediate opnd then moveToReg opnd else opnd
 
      and isMemOpnd opnd = 
          (case opnd of 
            I.Displace _ => true
          | I.Indexed _  => true 
          | I.MemReg _   => true 
          | I.LabelEA _  => true 
          | I.FDirect f  => true
          | _            => false
          )
      
         (* 
          * Compute an integer expression and put the result in 
          * the destination register rd.  
          *)
      and doExpr(exp, rd : CB.cell, an) = 
          let val rdOpnd = IntReg rd

              fun equalRd(I.Direct r) = CB.sameColor(r, rd)
                | equalRd(I.MemReg r) = CB.sameColor(r, rd)
                | equalRd _ = false

                 (* Emit a binary operator.  If the destination is
                  * a memReg, do something smarter.
                  *)
              fun genBinary(binOp, opnd1, opnd2) =
                  if isMemReg rd andalso
                     (isMemOpnd opnd1 orelse isMemOpnd opnd2) orelse
                     equalRd(opnd2)
                  then
                  let val tmpR = newReg()
                      val tmp  = I.Direct tmpR
                  in  move(opnd1, tmp);
                      mark(I.BINARY{binOp=binOp, src=opnd2, dst=tmp}, an);
                      move(tmp, rdOpnd)
                  end 
                  else
                     (move(opnd1, rdOpnd);
                      mark(I.BINARY{binOp=binOp, src=opnd2, dst=rdOpnd}, an)
                     )

                 (* Generate a binary operator; it may commute *)
              fun binaryComm(binOp, e1, e2) = 
              let val (opnd1, opnd2) = 
                      case (operand e1, operand e2) of
                        (x as I.Immed _, y)      => (y, x)
                      | (x as I.ImmedLabel _, y) => (y, x)
                      | (x, y as I.Direct _)     => (y, x)
                      | (x, y)                   => (x, y)
              in  genBinary(binOp, opnd1, opnd2)
              end
        
                 (* Generate a binary operator; non-commutative *)
              fun binary(binOp, e1, e2) =
                  genBinary(binOp, operand e1, operand e2)
        
                 (* Generate a unary operator *)
              fun unary(unOp, e) = 
              let val opnd = operand e
              in  if isMemReg rd andalso isMemOpnd opnd then
                     let val tmp = I.Direct(newReg())
                     in  move(opnd, tmp); move(tmp, rdOpnd)
                     end 
                  else move(opnd, rdOpnd);
                  mark(I.UNARY{unOp=unOp, opnd=rdOpnd}, an)
              end
        
                 (* Generate shifts; the shift 
                  * amount must be a constant or in %ecx *)
              fun shift(opcode, e1, e2) =
              let val (opnd1, opnd2) = (operand e1, operand e2)
              in  case opnd2 of 
                    I.Immed _ => genBinary(opcode, opnd1, opnd2)
                  | _ => 
                    if equalRd(opnd2) then 
                    let val tmpR = newReg()
                        val tmp  = I.Direct tmpR
                    in  move(opnd1, tmp);
                        move(opnd2, ecx);
                        mark(I.BINARY{binOp=opcode, src=ecx, dst=tmp},an);
                        move(tmp, rdOpnd)
                    end
                    else
                        (move(opnd1, rdOpnd);
                         move(opnd2, ecx);
                         mark(I.BINARY{binOp=opcode, src=ecx, dst=rdOpnd},an)
                        )
              end
        
              (* Division or remainder: divisor must be in %edx:%eax pair *)
              fun divrem(signed, overflow, e1, e2, resultReg) =
              let val (opnd1, opnd2) = (operand e1, operand e2)
                  val _ = move(opnd1, eax)
                  val oper = if signed then (emit(I.CDQ); I.IDIVL1)
                             else (zero edx; I.DIVL1)
              in  mark(I.MULTDIV{multDivOp=oper, src=regOrMem opnd2},an);
                  move(resultReg, rdOpnd);
                  if overflow then trap() else ()
              end

	      (* division with rounding towards negative infinity *)
	      fun divinf0 (overflow, e1, e2) = let
		  val o1 = operand e1
		  val o2 = operand e2
		  val l = Label.anon ()
	      in
		  move (o1, eax);
		  emit I.CDQ;
		  mark (I.MULTDIV { multDivOp = I.IDIVL1, src = regOrMem o2 },
			an);
		  if overflow then trap() else ();
		  app emit [I.CMPL { lsrc = edx, rsrc = I.Immed 0 },
			    I.JCC { cond = I.EQ, opnd = immedLabel l },
			    I.BINARY { binOp = I.XORL,
				       src = regOrMem o2,
				       dst = edx },
			    I.JCC { cond = I.GE, opnd = immedLabel l },
			    I.UNARY { unOp = I.DECL, opnd = eax }];
		  defineLabel l;
		  move (eax, rdOpnd)
	      end

	      (* analyze for power-of-two-ness *)
	      fun analyze i' = let
		  val i = toInt32 i'
	      in
		  let val (isneg, a, w) =
			  if i >= 0 then (false, i, T.I.toWord32 (32, i'))
			  else (true, ~i, T.I.toWord32 (32, T.I.NEG (32,  i')))
		      fun log2 (0w1, p) = p
			| log2 (w, p) = log2 (W32.>> (w, 0w1), p + 1)
		  in
		      if w > 0w1 andalso W32.andb (w - 0w1, w) = 0w0 then
			  (i, SOME (isneg, a,
				    T.LI (T.I.fromInt32 (32, log2 (w, 0)))))
		      else (i, NONE)
		  end handle _ => (i, NONE)
	      end

	      (* Division by a power of two when rounding to neginf is the
	       * same as an arithmetic right shift. *)
	      fun divinf (overflow, e1, e2 as T.LI n') =
		  (case analyze n' of
		       (_, NONE) => divinf0 (overflow, e1, e2)
		     | (_, SOME (false, _, p)) =>
		       shift (I.SARL, T.REG (32, expr e1), p)
		     | (_, SOME (true, _, p)) => let
			   val reg = expr e1
		       in
			  emit(I.UNARY { unOp = I.NEGL, opnd = I.Direct reg });
			  shift (I.SARL, T.REG (32, reg), p)
		       end)
		| divinf (overflow, e1, e2) = divinf0 (overflow, e1, e2)

	      fun reminf0 (e1, e2) = let
		  val o1 = operand e1
		  val o2 = operand e2
		  val l = Label.anon ()
	      in
		  move (o1, eax);
		  emit I.CDQ;
		  mark (I.MULTDIV { multDivOp = I.IDIVL1, src = regOrMem o2 },
			an);
		  app emit [I.CMPL { lsrc = edx, rsrc = I.Immed 0 },
			    I.JCC { cond = I.EQ, opnd = immedLabel l }];
		  move (edx, eax);
		  app emit [I.BINARY { binOp = I.XORL,
				       src = regOrMem o2, dst = eax },
			    I.JCC { cond = I.GE, opnd = immedLabel l },
			    I.BINARY { binOp = I.ADDL,
				       src = regOrMem o2, dst = edx }];
		  defineLabel l;
		  move (edx, rdOpnd)
	      end

	      (* n mod (power-of-2) corresponds to a bitmask (AND). 
	       * If the power is negative, then we must first negate
	       * the argument and then again negate the result. *)
	      fun reminf (e1, e2 as T.LI n') =
		  (case analyze n' of
		       (_, NONE) => reminf0 (e1, e2)
		     | (_, SOME (false, a, _)) =>
		       binaryComm (I.ANDL, e1,
				           T.LI (T.I.fromInt32 (32, a - 1)))
		     | (_, SOME (true, a, _)) => let
			   val r1 = expr e1
			   val o1 = I.Direct r1
		       in
			   emit (I.UNARY { unOp = I.NEGL, opnd = o1 });
			   emit (I.BINARY { binOp = I.ANDL,
					    src = I.Immed (a - 1),
					    dst = o1 });
			   unary (I.NEGL, T.REG (32, r1))
		       end)
		| reminf (e1, e2) = reminf0 (e1, e2)

              (* Optimize the special case for division *) 
              fun divide (signed, overflow, e1, e2 as T.LI n') =
		  (case analyze n' of
		       (n, SOME (isneg, a, p)) =>
		       if signed then
			   let val label = Label.anon ()
			       val reg1 = expr e1
			       val opnd1 = I.Direct reg1
			   in
			       if isneg then
				   emit (I.UNARY { unOp = I.NEGL,
						   opnd = opnd1 })
			       else if setZeroBit e1 then ()
			       else emit (I.CMPL { lsrc = opnd1,
						   rsrc = I.Immed 0 });
			       emit (I.JCC { cond = I.GE,
					     opnd = immedLabel label });
			       emit (if a = 2 then
					 I.UNARY { unOp = I.INCL,
						   opnd = opnd1 }
				     else
					 I.BINARY { binOp = I.ADDL,
						    src = I.Immed (a - 1),
						    dst = opnd1 });
			       defineLabel label;
			       shift (I.SARL, T.REG (32, reg1), p)
			   end
		       else shift (I.SHRL, e1, p)
		     | (n, NONE) =>
		       divrem(signed, overflow andalso (n = ~1 orelse n = 0),
			      e1, e2, eax))
		| divide (signed, overflow, e1, e2) =
		  divrem (signed, overflow, e1, e2, eax)

	      (* rem never causes overflow *)
              fun rem (signed, e1, e2 as T.LI n') =
		  (case analyze n' of
		       (n, SOME (isneg, a, _)) =>
		       if signed then
			   (* The following logic should work uniformely
			    * for both isneg and not isneg.  It only uses
			    * the absolute value (a) of the divisor.
			    * Here is the formula:
			    *    let p be a power of two and a = abs(p):
			    *
			    *    x % p = x - ((x < 0 ? x + a - 1 : x) & (-a))
			    *
			    * (That's what GCC seems to do.)
			    *)
			   let val r1 = expr e1
			       val o1 = I.Direct r1
			       val rt = newReg ()
			       val tmp = I.Direct rt
			       val l = Label.anon ()
			   in
			       move (o1, tmp);
			       if setZeroBit e1 then ()
			       else emit (I.CMPL { lsrc = o1,
						   rsrc = I.Immed 0 });
			       emit (I.JCC { cond = I.GE,
					     opnd = immedLabel l });
			       emit (I.BINARY { binOp = I.ADDL,
						src = I.Immed (a - 1),
						dst = tmp });
			       defineLabel l;
			       emit (I.BINARY { binOp = I.ANDL,
						src = I.Immed (~a),
						dst = tmp });
			       binary (I.SUBL, T.REG (32, rt), T.REG (32, r1))
			   end
		       else
			   if isneg then
			       (* this is really strange... *)
			       divrem (false, false, e1, e2, edx)
			   else
			       binaryComm (I.ANDL, e1,
					   T.LI (T.I.fromInt32 (32, n - 1)))
		     | (_, NONE) => divrem (signed, false, e1, e2, edx))
		| rem(signed, e1, e2) =
                  divrem(signed, false, e1, e2, edx)

                  (* Makes sure the destination must be a register *)
              fun dstMustBeReg f = 
                  if isMemReg rd then
                  let val tmpR = newReg()
                      val tmp  = I.Direct(tmpR)
                  in  f(tmpR, tmp); move(tmp, rdOpnd) end
                  else f(rd, rdOpnd)

                  (* unsigned integer multiplication *)
              fun uMultiply0 (e1, e2) = 
                  (* note e2 can never be (I.Direct edx) *)
                  (move(operand e1, eax);
                   mark(I.MULTDIV{multDivOp=I.MULL1, 
                                  src=regOrMem(operand e2)},an);
                   move(eax, rdOpnd)
                  )
        
	      fun uMultiply (e1, e2 as T.LI n') =
		  (case analyze n' of
		       (_, SOME (false, _, p)) => shift (I.SHLL, e1, p)
		     | _ => uMultiply0 (e1, e2))
		| uMultiply (e1 as T.LI _, e2) = uMultiply (e2, e1)
		| uMultiply (e1, e2) = uMultiply0 (e1, e2)

                  (* signed integer multiplication: 
                   * The only forms that are allowed that also sets the 
                   * OF and CF flags are:
                   *
                   *          (dst)  (src1)  (src2)
                   *      imul r32, r32/m32, imm8
                   *          (dst)  (src) 
                   *      imul r32, imm8
                   *      imul r32, imm32
                   *      imul r32, r32/m32
                   * Note: destination must be a register!
                   *)
              fun multiply (e1, e2) = 
              dstMustBeReg(fn (rd, rdOpnd) =>
              let fun doit(i1 as I.Immed _, i2 as I.Immed _) =
                      (move(i1, rdOpnd);
                       mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.IMULL, dst=rdOpnd, src=i2},an))
                    | doit(rm, i2 as I.Immed _) = doit(i2, rm)
                    | doit(imm as I.Immed(i), rm) =
                           mark(I.MUL3{dst=rd, src1=rm, src2=i},an)
                    | doit(r1 as I.Direct _, r2 as I.Direct _) =
                      (move(r1, rdOpnd);
                       mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.IMULL, dst=rdOpnd, src=r2},an))
                    | doit(r1 as I.Direct _, rm) =
                      (move(r1, rdOpnd);
                       mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.IMULL, dst=rdOpnd, src=rm},an))
                    | doit(rm, r as I.Direct _) = doit(r, rm)
                    | doit(rm1, rm2) =
                       if equalRd rm2 then
                       let val tmpR = newReg()
                           val tmp  = I.Direct tmpR
                       in move(rm1, tmp);
                          mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.IMULL, dst=tmp, src=rm2},an);
                          move(tmp, rdOpnd)
                       end
                       else
                         (move(rm1, rdOpnd);
                          mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.IMULL, dst=rdOpnd, src=rm2},an)
                         )
                  val (opnd1, opnd2) = (operand e1, operand e2)
              in  doit(opnd1, opnd2)
              end
              )

	      fun multiply_notrap (e1, e2 as T.LI n') =
		  (case analyze n' of
		       (_, SOME (isneg, _, p)) => let
			   val r1 = expr e1
			   val o1 = I.Direct r1
		       in
			   if isneg then
			       emit (I.UNARY { unOp = I.NEGL, opnd = o1 })
			   else ();
			   shift (I.SHLL, T.REG (32, r1), p)
		       end
		     | _ => multiply (e1, e2))
		| multiply_notrap (e1 as T.LI _, e2) = multiply_notrap (e2, e1)
		| multiply_notrap (e1, e2) = multiply (e1, e2)

                 (* Emit a load instruction; makes sure that the destination
                  * is a register 
                  *)
              fun genLoad(mvOp, ea, mem) = 
                  dstMustBeReg(fn (_, dst) =>
                     mark(I.MOVE{mvOp=mvOp, src=address(ea, mem), dst=dst},an))
    
                 (* Generate a zero extended loads *)
              fun load8(ea, mem) = genLoad(I.MOVZBL, ea, mem)
              fun load16(ea, mem) = genLoad(I.MOVZWL, ea, mem)
              fun load8s(ea, mem) = genLoad(I.MOVSBL, ea, mem)
              fun load16s(ea, mem) = genLoad(I.MOVSWL, ea, mem)
              fun load32(ea, mem) = genLoad(I.MOVL, ea, mem)
        
                 (* Generate a sign extended loads *)
        
                 (* Generate setcc instruction:
                  *  semantics:  MV(rd, COND(_, T.CMP(ty, cc, t1, t2), yes, no))
                  * Bug, if eax is either t1 or t2 then problem will occur!!!
                  * Note that we have to use eax as the destination of the
                  * setcc because it only works on the registers
                  * %al, %bl, %cl, %dl and %[abcd]h.  The last four registers
                  * are inaccessible in 32 bit mode.
                  *)
              fun setcc(ty, cc, t1, t2, yes, no) = 
              let val (cc, yes, no) = 
                         if yes > no then (cc, yes, no)
                         else (T.Basis.negateCond cc, no, yes)
              in  (* Clear the destination first.
                   * This this because stupid SETcc 
                   * only writes to the low order
                   * byte.  That's Intel architecture, folks.
                   *)
                  case (yes, no, cc) of
                    (1, 0, T.LT) =>
                     let val tmp = I.Direct(expr(T.SUB(32,t1,t2)))
                     in  move(tmp, rdOpnd);
                         emit(I.BINARY{binOp=I.SHRL,src=I.Immed 31,dst=rdOpnd})
                     end
                  | (1, 0, T.GT) =>
                     let val tmp = I.Direct(expr(T.SUB(32,t1,t2)))
                     in  emit(I.UNARY{unOp=I.NOTL,opnd=tmp});
                         move(tmp, rdOpnd);
                         emit(I.BINARY{binOp=I.SHRL,src=I.Immed 31,dst=rdOpnd})
                     end
                  | (1, 0, _) => (* normal case *)
                    let val cc = cmp(true, ty, cc, t1, t2, []) 
                    in  mark(I.SET{cond=cond cc, opnd=eax}, an);
                        emit(I.BINARY{binOp=I.ANDL,src=I.Immed 255, dst=eax});
                        move(eax, rdOpnd)
                    end
                  | (C1, C2, _)  => 
                    (* general case; 
                     * from the Intel optimization guide p3-5 
                     *)
                    let val _  = zero eax;
                        val cc = cmp(true, ty, cc, t1, t2, []) 
                    in  case C1-C2 of
                          D as (1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 8 | 9) =>
                          let val (base,scale) = 
                                  case D of
                                    1 => (NONE, 0)
                                  | 2 => (NONE, 1)
                                  | 3 => (SOME C.eax, 1)
                                  | 4 => (NONE, 2)
                                  | 5 => (SOME C.eax, 2)
                                  | 8 => (NONE, 3)
                                  | 9 => (SOME C.eax, 3)
                              val addr = I.Indexed{base=base,
                                                   index=C.eax,
                                                   scale=scale,
                                                   disp=I.Immed C2,
                                                   mem=readonly}
                              val tmpR = newReg()
                              val tmp  = I.Direct tmpR
                          in  emit(I.SET{cond=cond cc, opnd=eax}); 
                              mark(I.LEA{r32=tmpR, addr=addr}, an);
                              move(tmp, rdOpnd)
                          end
                        | D =>
                           (emit(I.SET{cond=cond(T.Basis.negateCond cc), 
                                       opnd=eax}); 
                            emit(I.UNARY{unOp=I.DECL, opnd=eax});
                            emit(I.BINARY{binOp=I.ANDL,
                                          src=I.Immed D, dst=eax});
                            if C2 = 0 then 
                               move(eax, rdOpnd)
                            else
                               let val tmpR = newReg()
                                   val tmp  = I.Direct tmpR
                               in  mark(I.LEA{addr=
                                         I.Displace{
                                             base=C.eax,
                                             disp=I.Immed C2,
                                             mem=readonly},
                                             r32=tmpR}, an);
                                    move(tmp, rdOpnd)
                                end
                           )
                    end
              end (* setcc *)
    
                  (* Generate cmovcc instruction.
                   * on Pentium Pro and Pentium II only
                   *)
              fun cmovcc(ty, cc, t1, t2, yes, no) = 
              let fun genCmov(dstR, _) = 
                  let val _ = doExpr(no, dstR, []) (* false branch *)
                      val cc = cmp(true, ty, cc, t1, t2, [])  (* compare *)
                  in  mark(I.CMOV{cond=cond cc, src=regOrMem(operand yes), 
                                  dst=dstR}, an) 
                  end
              in  dstMustBeReg genCmov
              end
        
              fun unknownExp exp = doExpr(Gen.compileRexp exp, rd, an) 

                  (* Add n to rd *)
              fun addN n =
              let val n = operand n
                  val src = if isMemReg rd then immedOrReg n else n
              in  mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.ADDL, src=src, dst=rdOpnd}, an) end

                  (* Generate addition *)
              fun addition(e1, e2) =
                  case e1 of
                    T.REG(_,rs) => if CB.sameColor(rs,rd) then addN e2 
                                   else addition1(e1,e2)
                  | _ => addition1(e1,e2)
              and addition1(e1, e2) =
                  case e2 of
                    T.REG(_,rs) => if CB.sameColor(rs,rd) then addN e1 
                                   else addition2(e1,e2)
                  | _ => addition2(e1,e2) 
              and addition2(e1,e2) =     
                (dstMustBeReg(fn (dstR, _) => 
                    mark(I.LEA{r32=dstR, addr=address(exp, readonly)}, an))
                handle EA => binaryComm(I.ADDL, e1, e2))


          in  case exp of
               T.REG(_,rs) => 
                   if isMemReg rs andalso isMemReg rd then 
                      let val tmp = I.Direct(newReg())
                      in  move'(I.MemReg rs, tmp, an);
                          move'(tmp, rdOpnd, [])
                      end
                   else move'(IntReg rs, rdOpnd, an)
	     | T.LI z => let
		 val n = toInt32 z
	       in 
		 if n=0 then 
		   (* As per Fermin's request, special optimization for rd := 0. 
		    * Currently we don't bother with the size.
		    *)
		   if isMemReg rd then move'(I.Immed 0, rdOpnd, an)
		   else mark(I.BINARY{binOp=I.XORL, src=rdOpnd, dst=rdOpnd}, an)
		 else
		   move'(I.Immed(n), rdOpnd, an)
	       end
             | (T.CONST _ | T.LABEL _) => 
                 move'(I.ImmedLabel exp, rdOpnd, an)
             | T.LABEXP le => move'(I.ImmedLabel le, rdOpnd, an)

               (* 32-bit addition *)
	     | T.ADD(32, e1, e2 as T.LI n) => let
	         val n = toInt32 n
               in 
		 case n 
		 of 1  => unary(I.INCL, e1)
	          | ~1 => unary(I.DECL, e1)
		  | _ => addition(e1, e2)
	       end
	     | T.ADD(32, e1 as T.LI n, e2) => let
	         val n = toInt32 n
	       in
		 case n 
		 of  1 => unary(I.INCL, e2)
	          | ~1 => unary(I.DECL, e2)
		  | _ => addition(e1, e2)
	       end
             | T.ADD(32, e1, e2) => addition(e1, e2)

               (* 32-bit addition but set the flag!
                * This is a stupid hack for now.  
                *)
	     | T.ADD(0, e, e1 as T.LI n) => let
	         val n = T.I.toInt(32, n)
               in
		 if n=1 then unary(I.INCL, e)
		 else if n = ~1 then unary(I.DECL, e)
 		      else binaryComm(I.ADDL, e, e1)
               end
	     | T.ADD(0, e1 as T.LI n, e) => let
	         val n = T.I.toInt(32, n)
	       in
		 if n=1 then unary(I.INCL, e)
		 else if n = ~1 then unary(I.DECL, e)
		      else binaryComm(I.ADDL, e1, e)
               end
	     | T.ADD(0, e1, e2) => binaryComm(I.ADDL, e1, e2)
	         
               (* 32-bit subtraction *)
	     | T.SUB(32, e1, e2 as T.LI n) => let
	         val n = toInt32 n
	       in
		 case n
		 of 0 => doExpr(e1, rd, an)
	          | 1 => unary(I.DECL, e1)
		  | ~1 => unary(I.INCL, e1)
		  | _ => binary(I.SUBL, e1, e2)
               end
	     | T.SUB(32, e1 as T.LI n, e2) => 
	         if T.I.isZero n then unary(I.NEGL, e2)
		 else binary(I.SUBL, e1, e2)
             | T.SUB(32, e1, e2) => binary(I.SUBL, e1, e2)

             | T.MULU(32, x, y) => uMultiply(x, y)
             | T.DIVU(32, x, y) => divide(false, false, x, y)
             | T.REMU(32, x, y) => rem(false, x, y)

             | T.MULS(32, x, y) => multiply_notrap (x, y)
             | T.DIVS(T.DIV_TO_ZERO, 32, x, y) => divide(true, false, x, y)
	     | T.DIVS(T.DIV_TO_NEGINF, 32, x, y) => divinf (false, x, y)
             | T.REMS(T.DIV_TO_ZERO, 32, x, y) => rem(true, x, y)
	     | T.REMS(T.DIV_TO_NEGINF, 32, x, y) => reminf (x, y)

             | T.ADDT(32, x, y) => (binaryComm(I.ADDL, x, y); trap())
             | T.SUBT(32, x, y) => (binary(I.SUBL, x, y); trap())
             | T.MULT(32, x, y) => (multiply (x, y); trap ())
             | T.DIVT(T.DIV_TO_ZERO, 32, x, y) => divide(true, true, x, y)
	     | T.DIVT(T.DIV_TO_NEGINF, 32, x, y) => divinf (true, x, y)

             | T.ANDB(32, x, y) => binaryComm(I.ANDL, x, y)
             | T.ORB(32, x, y)  => binaryComm(I.ORL, x, y)
             | T.XORB(32, x, y) => binaryComm(I.XORL, x, y)
             | T.NOTB(32, x)    => unary(I.NOTL, x)

             | T.SRA(32, x, y)  => shift(I.SARL, x, y)
             | T.SRL(32, x, y)  => shift(I.SHRL, x, y)
             | T.SLL(32, x, y)  => shift(I.SHLL, x, y)

             | T.LOAD(8, ea, mem) => load8(ea, mem)
             | T.LOAD(16, ea, mem) => load16(ea, mem)
             | T.LOAD(32, ea, mem) => load32(ea, mem)

             | T.SX(32,8,T.LOAD(8,ea,mem)) => load8s(ea, mem)
             | T.SX(32,16,T.LOAD(16,ea,mem)) => load16s(ea, mem)
             | T.ZX(32,8,T.LOAD(8,ea,mem)) => load8(ea, mem)
             | T.ZX(32,16,T.LOAD(16,ea,mem)) => load16(ea, mem)

             | T.COND(32, T.CMP(ty, cc, t1, t2), y as T.LI yes, n as T.LI no) =>
                (case !arch of (* PentiumPro and higher has CMOVcc *)
                  Pentium => setcc(ty, cc, t1, t2, toInt32 yes, toInt32 no)
                | _ => cmovcc(ty, cc, t1, t2, y, n)
                )
             | T.COND(32, T.CMP(ty, cc, t1, t2), yes, no) => 
                (case !arch of (* PentiumPro and higher has CMOVcc *)
                   Pentium => unknownExp exp
                 | _ => cmovcc(ty, cc, t1, t2, yes, no)
                )
             | T.LET(s,e) => (doStmt s; doExpr(e, rd, an))
             | T.MARK(e, A.MARKREG f) => (f rd; doExpr(e, rd, an))
             | T.MARK(e, a) => doExpr(e, rd, a::an)
             | T.PRED(e,c) => doExpr(e, rd, A.CTRLUSE c::an)
             | T.REXT e => 
                 ExtensionComp.compileRext (reducer()) {e=e, rd=rd, an=an} 
               (* simplify and try again *)
             | exp => unknownExp exp
          end (* doExpr *)

          (* generate an expression and return its result register 
           * If rewritePseudo is on, the result is guaranteed to be in a 
           * non memReg register
           *)
      and expr(exp as T.REG(_, rd)) = 
          if isMemReg rd then genExpr exp else rd
        | expr exp = genExpr exp

      and genExpr exp = 
          let val rd = newReg() in doExpr(exp, rd, []); rd end

         (* Compare an expression with zero.
          * On the x86, TEST is superior to AND for doing the same thing,
          * since it doesn't need to write out the result in a register.
          *)
     and cmpWithZero(cc as (T.EQ | T.NE), e as T.ANDB(ty, a, b), an) = 
            (case ty of
               8  => test(I.TESTB, a, b, an)
             | 16 => test(I.TESTW, a, b, an)
             | 32 => test(I.TESTL, a, b, an)
             | _  => doExpr(e, newReg(), an); 
             cc)  
        | cmpWithZero(cc, e, an) = 
          let val e = 
                case e of (* hack to disable the lea optimization XXX *)
                  T.ADD(_, a, b) => T.ADD(0, a, b)
                | e => e
          in  doExpr(e, newReg(), an); cc end

          (* Emit a test.
           *   The available modes are
           *      r/m, r
           *      r/m, imm
           * On selecting the right instruction: TESTL/TESTW/TESTB.   
           * When anding an operand with a constant
           * that fits within 8 (or 16) bits, it is possible to use TESTB,
           * (or TESTW) instead of TESTL.   Because x86 is little endian, 
           * this works for memory operands too.  However, with TESTB, it is
           * not possible to use registers other than 
           * AL, CL, BL, DL, and AH, CH, BH, DH.  So, the best way is to
           * perform register allocation first, and if the operand registers
           * are one of EAX, ECX, EBX, or EDX, replace the TESTL instruction 
           * by TESTB.
           *)
      and test(testopcode, a, b, an) = 
          let val (_, opnd1, opnd2) = commuteComparison(T.EQ, true, a, b)
              (* translate r, r/m => r/m, r *)
              val (opnd1, opnd2) = 
                   if isMemOpnd opnd2 then (opnd2, opnd1) else (opnd1, opnd2)
          in  mark(testopcode{lsrc=opnd1, rsrc=opnd2}, an)
          end

          (* %eflags <- src *)
      and moveToEflags src =
          if CB.sameColor(src, C.eflags) then ()
          else (move(I.Direct src, eax); emit(I.LAHF))

          (* dst <- %eflags *) 
      and moveFromEflags dst =
          if CB.sameColor(dst, C.eflags) then ()
          else (emit(I.SAHF); move(eax, I.Direct dst))

         (* generate a condition code expression 
          * The zero is for setting the condition code!  
          * I have no idea why this is used.
          *)
      and doCCexpr(T.CMP(ty, cc, t1, t2), rd, an) = 
          (cmp(false, ty, cc, t1, t2, an); 
           moveFromEflags rd
          ) 
        | doCCexpr(T.CC(cond,rs), rd, an) = 
          if CB.sameColor(rs,C.eflags) orelse CB.sameColor(rd,C.eflags) then
             (moveToEflags rs; moveFromEflags rd)
          else
             move'(I.Direct rs, I.Direct rd, an)
        | doCCexpr(T.CCMARK(e,A.MARKREG f),rd,an) = (f rd; doCCexpr(e,rd,an))
        | doCCexpr(T.CCMARK(e,a), rd, an) = doCCexpr(e,rd,a::an)
        | doCCexpr(T.CCEXT e, cd, an) = 
           ExtensionComp.compileCCext (reducer()) {e=e, ccd=cd, an=an} 
        | doCCexpr _ = error "doCCexpr"

     and ccExpr e = error "ccExpr"

          (* generate a comparison and sets the condition code;
           * return the actual cc used.  If the flag swapable is true,
           * we can also reorder the operands. 
           *)
      and cmp(swapable, ty, cc, t1, t2, an) = 
               (* == and <> can be always be reordered *)
          let val swapable = swapable orelse cc = T.EQ orelse cc = T.NE
          in (* Sometimes the comparison is not necessary because
              * the bits are already set! 
              *)
             if isZero t1 andalso setZeroBit2 t2 then 
                 if swapable then
                    cmpWithZero(T.Basis.swapCond cc, t2, an)
                 else (* can't reorder the comparison! *)
                    genCmp(ty, false, cc, t1, t2, an)
             else if isZero t2 andalso setZeroBit2 t1 then 
                cmpWithZero(cc, t1, an)
             else genCmp(ty, swapable, cc, t1, t2, an) 
          end

          (* Give a and b which are the operands to a comparison (or test)
           * Return the appropriate condition code and operands.
           *   The available modes are:
           *        r/m, imm
           *        r/m, r
           *        r,   r/m
           *)
      and commuteComparison(cc, swapable, a, b) = 
          let val (opnd1, opnd2) = (operand a, operand b)
          in  (* Try to fold in the operands whenever possible *)
              case (isImmediate opnd1, isImmediate opnd2) of
                (true, true) => (cc, moveToReg opnd1, opnd2)
              | (true, false) => 
                   if swapable then (T.Basis.swapCond cc, opnd2, opnd1)
                   else (cc, moveToReg opnd1, opnd2)
              | (false, true) => (cc, opnd1, opnd2)
              | (false, false) => 
                 (case (opnd1, opnd2) of
                    (_, I.Direct _) => (cc, opnd1, opnd2)
                  | (I.Direct _, _) => (cc, opnd1, opnd2)
                  | (_, _)          => (cc, moveToReg opnd1, opnd2)
                 )
          end 
 
          (* generate a real comparison; return the real cc used *)
      and genCmp(ty, swapable, cc, a, b, an) = 
          let val (cc, opnd1, opnd2) = commuteComparison(cc, swapable, a, b)
          in  mark(I.CMPL{lsrc=opnd1, rsrc=opnd2}, an); cc 
          end

          (* generate code for jumps *)
      and jmp(lexp as T.LABEL lab, labs, an) = 
             mark(I.JMP(I.ImmedLabel lexp, [lab]), an)
        | jmp(T.LABEXP le, labs, an) = mark(I.JMP(I.ImmedLabel le, labs), an)
        | jmp(ea, labs, an)          = mark(I.JMP(operand ea, labs), an)

       (* convert mlrisc to cellset:
        *)
       and cellset mlrisc =
           let val addCCReg = CB.CellSet.add 
               fun g([],acc) = acc
                 | g(T.GPR(T.REG(_,r))::regs,acc)  = g(regs,C.addReg(r,acc))
                 | g(T.FPR(T.FREG(_,f))::regs,acc) = g(regs,C.addFreg(f,acc))
                 | g(T.CCR(T.CC(_,cc))::regs,acc)  = g(regs,addCCReg(cc,acc))
                 | g(T.CCR(T.FCC(_,cc))::regs,acc)  = g(regs,addCCReg(cc,acc))
                 | g(_::regs, acc) = g(regs, acc)
           in  g(mlrisc, C.empty) end

          (* generate code for calls *)
      and call(ea, flow, def, use, mem, cutsTo, an, pops) = 
      let fun return(set, []) = set
            | return(set, a::an) =
              case #peek A.RETURN_ARG a of 
                SOME r => return(CB.CellSet.add(r, set), an)
              | NONE => return(set, an)
      in
	  mark(I.CALL{opnd=operand ea,defs=cellset(def),uses=cellset(use),
                      return=return(C.empty,an),cutsTo=cutsTo,mem=mem,
		      pops=pops},an)
      end

          (* generate code for integer stores; first move data to %eax 
           * This is mainly because we can't allocate to registers like
           * ah, dl, dx etc.
           *)
      and genStore(mvOp, ea, d, mem, an) =
          let val src = 
                 case immedOrReg(operand d) of
                     src as I.Direct r =>
                       if CB.sameColor(r,C.eax) 
                       then src else (move(src, eax); eax)
                   | src => src
          in  mark(I.MOVE{mvOp=mvOp, src=src, dst=address(ea,mem)},an)
          end
 
          (* generate code for 8-bit integer stores *)
          (* movb has to use %eax as source. Stupid x86! *)
      and store8(ea, d, mem, an) = genStore(I.MOVB, ea, d, mem, an)
      and store16(ea, d, mem, an) = 
	mark(I.MOVE{mvOp=I.MOVW, src=immedOrReg(operand d), dst=address(ea, mem)}, an)
      and store32(ea, d, mem, an) = 
            move'(immedOrReg(operand d), address(ea, mem), an)

          (* generate code for branching *)
      and branch(T.CMP(ty, cc, t1, t2), lab, an) =
           (* allow reordering of operands *)
           let val cc = cmp(true, ty, cc, t1, t2, []) 
           in  mark(I.JCC{cond=cond cc, opnd=immedLabel lab}, an) end
        | branch(T.FCMP(fty, fcc, t1, t2), lab, an) = 
           fbranch(fty, fcc, t1, t2, lab, an)
        | branch(ccexp, lab, an) =
           (doCCexpr(ccexp, C.eflags, []);
            mark(I.JCC{cond=cond(Gen.condOf ccexp), opnd=immedLabel lab}, an)
           )

          (* generate code for floating point compare and branch *)
      and fbranch(fty, fcc, t1, t2, lab, an) = 
          let fun j cc = mark(I.JCC{cond=cc, opnd=immedLabel lab},an)
          in  fbranching(fty, fcc, t1, t2, j)
          end

      and fbranching(fty, fcc, t1, t2, j) = 
          let fun ignoreOrder (T.FREG _) = true
                | ignoreOrder (T.FLOAD _) = true
                | ignoreOrder (T.FMARK(e,_)) = ignoreOrder e
                | ignoreOrder _ = false

              fun compare'() = (* Sethi-Ullman style *)
                  (if ignoreOrder t1 orelse ignoreOrder t2 then 
                        (reduceFexp(fty, t2, []); reduceFexp(fty, t1, []))
                   else (reduceFexp(fty, t1, []); reduceFexp(fty, t2, []); 
                         emit(I.FXCH{opnd=C.ST(1)}));
                   emit(I.FUCOMPP);
                   fcc
                  )

              fun compare''() = 
                      (* direct style *)
                      (* Try to make lsrc the memory operand *)
                  let val lsrc = foperand(fty, t1)
                      val rsrc = foperand(fty, t2)
                      val fsize = fsize fty
                      fun cmp(lsrc, rsrc, fcc) =
                      let val i = !arch <> Pentium    
                      in  emit(I.FCMP{i=i,fsize=fsize,lsrc=lsrc,rsrc=rsrc});
                          fcc
                      end
                  in  case (lsrc, rsrc) of
                         (I.FPR _, I.FPR _) => cmp(lsrc, rsrc, fcc)
                       | (I.FPR _, mem) => cmp(mem,lsrc,T.Basis.swapFcond fcc)
                       | (mem, I.FPR _) => cmp(lsrc, rsrc, fcc)
                       | (lsrc, rsrc) => (* can't be both memory! *)
                         let val ftmpR = newFreg()
                             val ftmp  = I.FPR ftmpR
                         in  emit(I.FMOVE{fsize=fsize,src=rsrc,dst=ftmp});
                             cmp(lsrc, ftmp, fcc)
                         end
                  end

              fun compare() = 
                  if enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point 
                  then compare''() else compare'()

              fun andil i = emit(I.BINARY{binOp=I.ANDL,src=I.Immed(i),dst=eax})
              fun testil i = emit(I.TESTL{lsrc=eax,rsrc=I.Immed(i)})
              fun xoril i = emit(I.BINARY{binOp=I.XORL,src=I.Immed(i),dst=eax})
              fun cmpil i = emit(I.CMPL{rsrc=I.Immed(i), lsrc=eax})
              fun sahf() = emit(I.SAHF)
              fun branch(fcc) =
                  case fcc
                  of T.==   => (andil 0x4400; xoril 0x4000; j(I.EQ))
                   | T.?<>  => (andil 0x4400; xoril 0x4000; j(I.NE))
                   | T.?    => (sahf(); j(I.P))
                   | T.<=>  => (sahf(); j(I.NP))
                   | T.>    => (testil 0x4500;  j(I.EQ))
                   | T.?<=  => (testil 0x4500;  j(I.NE))
                   | T.>=   => (testil 0x500; j(I.EQ))
                   | T.?<   => (testil 0x500; j(I.NE))
                   | T.<    => (andil 0x4500; cmpil 0x100; j(I.EQ))
                   | T.?>=  => (andil 0x4500; cmpil 0x100; j(I.NE))
                   | T.<=   => (andil 0x4100; cmpil 0x100; j(I.EQ);
                                cmpil 0x4000; j(I.EQ))
                   | T.?>   => (sahf(); j(I.P); testil 0x4100; j(I.EQ))
                   | T.<>   => (testil 0x4400; j(I.EQ))
                   | T.?=   => (testil 0x4400; j(I.NE))
                   | _      => error(concat[
				  "fbranch(", T.Basis.fcondToString fcc, ")"
				])
                 (*esac*)

              (*
               *             P  Z  C
               * x < y       0  0  1
               * x > y       0  0  0
               * x = y       0  1  0
               * unordered   1  1  1
               * When it's unordered, all three flags, P, Z, C are set.
               *)
                
              fun fast_branch(fcc) =
                  case fcc
                  of T.==   => orderedOnly(I.EQ)
                   | T.?<>  => (j(I.P); j(I.NE))
                   | T.?    => j(I.P)
                   | T.<=>  => j(I.NP)
                   | T.>    => orderedOnly(I.A)
                   | T.?<=  => j(I.BE)
                   | T.>=   => orderedOnly(I.AE)
                   | T.?<   => j(I.B)
                   | T.<    => orderedOnly(I.B)
                   | T.?>=  => (j(I.P); j(I.AE))
                   | T.<=   => orderedOnly(I.BE)
                   | T.?>   => (j(I.P); j(I.A))
                   | T.<>   => orderedOnly(I.NE)
                   | T.?=   => j(I.EQ)
                   | _      => error(concat[
				  "fbranch(", T.Basis.fcondToString fcc, ")"
				])
                 (*esac*)
              and orderedOnly fcc =
              let val label = Label.anon()
              in  emit(I.JCC{cond=I.P, opnd=immedLabel label});
                  j fcc;
                  defineLabel label
              end
 
              val fcc = compare() 
          in  if !arch <> Pentium andalso
                 (enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point) then
                fast_branch(fcc)
              else
                (emit I.FNSTSW;   
                 branch(fcc)
                )
          end

      (*========================================================
       * Floating point code generation starts here.
       * Some generic fp routines first.
       *========================================================*)

       (* Can this tree be folded into the src operand of a floating point
        * operations?
        *)
      and foldableFexp(T.FREG _) = true
        | foldableFexp(T.FLOAD _) = true
        | foldableFexp(T.CVTI2F(_, (16 | 32), _)) = true
        | foldableFexp(T.CVTF2F(_, _, t)) = foldableFexp t
        | foldableFexp(T.FMARK(t, _)) = foldableFexp t
        | foldableFexp _ = false

        (* Move integer e of size ty into a memory location.
         * Returns a quadruple: 
         *  (INTEGER,return ty,effect address of memory location,cleanup code) 
         *) 
      and convertIntToFloat(ty, e) = 
          let val opnd = operand e 
          in  if isMemOpnd opnd andalso (ty = 16 orelse ty = 32)
              then (INTEGER, ty, opnd, [])
              else 
                let val {instrs, tempMem, cleanup} = 
                        cvti2f{ty=ty, src=opnd, an=getAnnotations()}
                in  emits instrs;
                    (INTEGER, 32, tempMem, cleanup)
                end
          end
 
      (*========================================================
       * Sethi-Ullman based floating point code generation as 
       * implemented by Lal 
       *========================================================*)

      and fld(32, opnd) = I.FLDS opnd
        | fld(64, opnd) = I.FLDL opnd
        | fld(80, opnd) = I.FLDT opnd
        | fld _         = error "fld"

      and fild(16, opnd) = I.FILD opnd
        | fild(32, opnd) = I.FILDL opnd
        | fild(64, opnd) = I.FILDLL opnd
        | fild _         = error "fild"

      and fxld(INTEGER, ty, opnd) = fild(ty, opnd)
        | fxld(REAL, fty, opnd) = fld(fty, opnd)

      and fstp(32, opnd) = I.FSTPS opnd
        | fstp(64, opnd) = I.FSTPL opnd
        | fstp(80, opnd) = I.FSTPT opnd
        | fstp _         = error "fstp"

          (* generate code for floating point stores *)
      and fstore'(fty, ea, d, mem, an) = 
          (case d of
             T.FREG(fty, fs) => emit(fld(fty, I.FDirect fs))
           | _ => reduceFexp(fty, d, []);
           mark(fstp(fty, address(ea, mem)), an)
          )

          (* generate code for floating point loads *)
      and fload'(fty, ea, mem, fd, an) = 
            let val ea = address(ea, mem)
            in  mark(fld(fty, ea), an); 
                if CB.sameColor(fd,ST0) then () 
                else emit(fstp(fty, I.FDirect fd))
            end

      and fexpr' e = (reduceFexp(64, e, []); C.ST(0))
          
          (* generate floating point expression and put the result in fd *)
      and doFexpr'(fty, T.FREG(_, fs), fd, an) = 
            (if CB.sameColor(fs,fd) then () 
             else mark'(I.COPY{k=CB.FP, sz=64, dst=[fd], src=[fs], tmp=NONE}, an)
            )
        | doFexpr'(_, T.FLOAD(fty, ea, mem), fd, an) = 
            fload'(fty, ea, mem, fd, an)
        | doFexpr'(fty, T.FEXT fexp, fd, an) = 
            (ExtensionComp.compileFext (reducer()) {e=fexp, fd=fd, an=an};
             if CB.sameColor(fd,ST0) then () else emit(fstp(fty, I.FDirect fd))
            )
        | doFexpr'(fty, e, fd, an) =
            (reduceFexp(fty, e, []);
             if CB.sameColor(fd,ST0) then ()
             else mark(fstp(fty, I.FDirect fd), an)
            )

          (* 
           * Generate floating point expression using Sethi-Ullman's scheme:
           * This function evaluates a floating point expression, 
           * and put result in %ST(0).
           *)
      and reduceFexp(fty, fexp, an)  = 
          let val ST = I.ST(C.ST 0)
              val ST1 = I.ST(C.ST 1)
              val cleanupCode = ref [] : I.instruction list ref

              datatype su_tree = 
                LEAF of int * T.fexp * ans
              | BINARY of int * T.fty * fbinop * su_tree * su_tree * ans
              | UNARY of int * T.fty * I.funOp * su_tree * ans
              and fbinop = FADD | FSUB | FMUL | FDIV
                         | FIADD | FISUB | FIMUL | FIDIV
              withtype ans = Annotations.annotations
 
              fun label(LEAF(n, _, _)) = n
                | label(BINARY(n, _, _, _, _, _)) = n
                | label(UNARY(n, _, _, _, _)) = n

              fun annotate(LEAF(n, x, an), a)  = LEAF(n,x,a::an)
                | annotate(BINARY(n,t,b,x,y,an), a) = BINARY(n,t,b,x,y,a::an)
                | annotate(UNARY(n,t,u,x,an), a) = UNARY(n,t,u,x,a::an)

              (* Generate expression tree with sethi-ullman numbers *)
              fun su(e as T.FREG _)       = LEAF(1, e, [])
                | su(e as T.FLOAD _)      = LEAF(1, e, [])
                | su(e as T.CVTI2F _)     = LEAF(1, e, [])
                | su(T.CVTF2F(_, _, t))   = su t
                | su(T.FMARK(t, a))       = annotate(su t, a)
                | su(T.FABS(fty, t))      = suUnary(fty, I.FABS, t)
                | su(T.FNEG(fty, t))      = suUnary(fty, I.FCHS, t)
                | su(T.FSQRT(fty, t))     = suUnary(fty, I.FSQRT, t)
                | su(T.FADD(fty, t1, t2)) = suComBinary(fty,FADD,FIADD,t1,t2)
                | su(T.FMUL(fty, t1, t2)) = suComBinary(fty,FMUL,FIMUL,t1,t2)
                | su(T.FSUB(fty, t1, t2)) = suBinary(fty,FSUB,FISUB,t1,t2)
                | su(T.FDIV(fty, t1, t2)) = suBinary(fty,FDIV,FIDIV,t1,t2)
                | su _ = error "su"
         
              (* Try to fold the the memory operand or integer conversion *) 
              and suFold(e as T.FREG _) = (LEAF(0, e, []), false)
                | suFold(e as T.FLOAD _) = (LEAF(0, e, []), false)
                | suFold(e as T.CVTI2F(_,(16 | 32),_)) = (LEAF(0, e, []), true)
                | suFold(T.CVTF2F(_, _, t)) = suFold t
                | suFold(T.FMARK(t, a)) = 
                  let val (t, integer) = suFold t 
                  in  (annotate(t, a), integer) end
                | suFold e = (su e, false)

              (* Form unary tree *)
              and suUnary(fty, funary, t) = 
                  let val t = su t
                  in  UNARY(label t, fty, funary, t, [])
                  end

              (* Form binary tree *)
              and suBinary(fty, binop, ibinop, t1, t2) =
                  let val t1 = su t1
                      val (t2, integer) = suFold t2
                      val n1 = label t1
                      val n2 = label t2
                      val n  = if n1=n2 then n1+1 else Int.max(n1,n2)
                      val myOp = if integer then ibinop else binop
                  in  BINARY(n, fty, myOp, t1, t2, []) 
                  end

              (* Try to fold in the operand if possible. 
               * This only applies to commutative operations.
               *)
              and suComBinary(fty, binop, ibinop, t1, t2) =
                  let val (t1, t2) = if foldableFexp t2 
                                     then (t1, t2) else (t2, t1)
                  in  suBinary(fty, binop, ibinop, t1, t2) end

              and sameTree(LEAF(_, T.FREG(t1,f1), []), 
                           LEAF(_, T.FREG(t2,f2), [])) = 
                        t1 = t2 andalso CB.sameColor(f1,f2)
                | sameTree _ = false

              (* Traverse tree and generate code *)
              fun gencode(LEAF(_, t, an)) = mark(fxld(leafEA t), an)
                | gencode(BINARY(_, _, binop, x, t2 as LEAF(0, y, a1), a2)) = 
                  let val _          = gencode x
                      val (_, fty, src) = leafEA y
                      fun gen(code) = mark(code, a1 @ a2)
                      fun binary(oper32, oper64) =
                          if sameTree(x, t2) then 
                             gen(I.FBINARY{binOp=oper64, src=ST, dst=ST})
                          else
                             let val oper = 
                                   if isMemOpnd src then
                                      case fty of
                                        32 => oper32
                                      | 64 => oper64
                                      | _  => error "gencode: BINARY"
                                   else oper64
                             in gen(I.FBINARY{binOp=oper, src=src, dst=ST}) end
                      fun ibinary(oper16, oper32) =
                          let val oper = case fty of
                                           16 => oper16 
                                         | 32 => oper32 
                                         | _  => error "gencode: IBINARY"
                          in  gen(I.FIBINARY{binOp=oper, src=src}) end
                  in  case binop of
                        FADD => binary(I.FADDS, I.FADDL) 
                      | FSUB => binary(I.FDIVS, I.FSUBL) 
                      | FMUL => binary(I.FMULS, I.FMULL) 
                      | FDIV => binary(I.FDIVS, I.FDIVL) 
                      | FIADD => ibinary(I.FIADDS, I.FIADDL) 
                      | FISUB => ibinary(I.FIDIVS, I.FISUBL) 
                      | FIMUL => ibinary(I.FIMULS, I.FIMULL) 
                      | FIDIV => ibinary(I.FIDIVS, I.FIDIVL) 
                  end  
                | gencode(BINARY(_, fty, binop, t1, t2, an)) = 
                  let fun doit(t1, t2, oper, operP, operRP) = 
                      let (* oper[P] =>  ST(1) := ST oper ST(1); [pop] 
                           * operR[P] => ST(1) := ST(1) oper ST; [pop]
                           *)
                           val n1 = label t1
                           val n2 = label t2
                      in if n1 < n2 andalso n1 <= 7 then 
                           (gencode t2;
                            gencode t1;
                            mark(I.FBINARY{binOp=operP, src=ST, dst=ST1}, an))
                         else if n2 <= n1 andalso n2 <= 7 then
                           (gencode t1;
                            gencode t2;
                            mark(I.FBINARY{binOp=operRP, src=ST, dst=ST1}, an))
                         else 
                         let (* both labels > 7 *)
                             val fs = I.FDirect(newFreg())
                         in  gencode t2;
                             emit(fstp(fty, fs));
                             gencode t1;
                             mark(I.FBINARY{binOp=oper, src=fs, dst=ST}, an)
                         end
                     end
                  in case binop of 
                       FADD => doit(t1,t2,I.FADDL,I.FADDP,I.FADDP)
                     | FMUL => doit(t1,t2,I.FMULL,I.FMULP,I.FMULP)
                     | FSUB => doit(t1,t2,I.FSUBL,I.FSUBP,I.FSUBRP)
                     | FDIV => doit(t1,t2,I.FDIVL,I.FDIVP,I.FDIVRP)
                     | _ => error "gencode.BINARY"
                  end
                | gencode(UNARY(_, _, unaryOp, su, an)) = 
                   (gencode(su); mark(I.FUNARY(unaryOp),an))

              (* Generate code for a leaf.
               * Returns the type and an effective address
               *) 
              and leafEA(T.FREG(fty, f)) = (REAL, fty, I.FDirect f)
                | leafEA(T.FLOAD(fty, ea, mem)) = (REAL, fty, address(ea, mem))
                | leafEA(T.CVTI2F(_, 32, t)) = int2real(32, t)
                | leafEA(T.CVTI2F(_, 16, t)) = int2real(16, t)
                | leafEA(T.CVTI2F(_, 8, t))  = int2real(8, t)
                | leafEA _ = error "leafEA"

              and int2real(ty, e) = 
                  let val (_, ty, ea, cleanup) = convertIntToFloat(ty, e)
                  in  cleanupCode := !cleanupCode @ cleanup;
                      (INTEGER, ty, ea)
                  end

         in  gencode(su fexp);
             emits(!cleanupCode)
          end (*reduceFexp*)

       (*========================================================
        * This section generates 3-address style floating 
        * point code.  
        *========================================================*)

      and isize 16 = I.I16
        | isize 32 = I.I32
        | isize _  = error "isize"

      and fstore''(fty, ea, d, mem, an) = 
          (floatingPointUsed := true;
           mark(I.FMOVE{fsize=fsize fty, dst=address(ea,mem), 
                        src=foperand(fty, d)},
                an)
          )

      and fload''(fty, ea, mem, d, an) = 
          (floatingPointUsed := true;
           mark(I.FMOVE{fsize=fsize fty, src=address(ea,mem), 
                        dst=RealReg d}, an)
          )

      and fiload''(ity, ea, d, an) = 
          (floatingPointUsed := true;
           mark(I.FILOAD{isize=isize ity, ea=ea, dst=RealReg d}, an)
          )

      and fexpr''(e as T.FREG(_,f)) = 
          if isFMemReg f then transFexpr e else f
        | fexpr'' e = transFexpr e

      and transFexpr e = 
          let val fd = newFreg() in doFexpr''(64, e, fd, []); fd end

         (* 
          * Process a floating point operand.  Put operand in register 
          * when possible.  The operand should match the given fty.
          *)
      and foperand(fty, e as T.FREG(fty', f)) = 
             if fty = fty' then RealReg f else I.FPR(fexpr'' e)
        | foperand(fty, T.CVTF2F(_, _, e)) =
             foperand(fty, e) (* nop on the x86 *)
        | foperand(fty, e as T.FLOAD(fty', ea, mem)) = 
             (* fold operand when the precison matches *)
             if fty = fty' then address(ea, mem) else I.FPR(fexpr'' e)
        | foperand(fty, e) = I.FPR(fexpr'' e)

         (* 
          * Process a floating point operand. 
          * Try to fold in a memory operand or conversion from an integer.
          *)
      and fioperand(T.FREG(fty,f)) = (REAL, fty, RealReg f, [])
        | fioperand(T.FLOAD(fty, ea, mem)) = 
             (REAL, fty, address(ea, mem), [])
        | fioperand(T.CVTF2F(_, _, e)) = fioperand(e) (* nop on the x86 *)
        | fioperand(T.CVTI2F(_, ty, e)) = convertIntToFloat(ty, e)
        | fioperand(T.FMARK(e,an)) = fioperand(e) (* XXX *)
        | fioperand(e) = (REAL, 64, I.FPR(fexpr'' e), [])

          (* Generate binary operator.  Since the real binary operators
           * does not take memory as destination, we also ensure this 
           * does not happen.  
           *)
      and fbinop(targetFty, 
                 binOp, binOpR, ibinOp, ibinOpR, lsrc, rsrc, fd, an) = 
              (* Put the mem operand in rsrc *)
          let 
              fun isMemOpnd(T.FREG(_, f)) = isFMemReg f
                | isMemOpnd(T.FLOAD _) = true
                | isMemOpnd(T.CVTI2F(_, (16 | 32), _)) = true
                | isMemOpnd(T.CVTF2F(_, _, t)) = isMemOpnd t
                | isMemOpnd(T.FMARK(t, _)) = isMemOpnd t
                | isMemOpnd _ = false
              val (binOp, ibinOp, lsrc, rsrc) = 
                  if isMemOpnd lsrc then (binOpR, ibinOpR, rsrc, lsrc)
                  else (binOp, ibinOp, lsrc, rsrc)
              val lsrc = foperand(targetFty, lsrc)
              val (kind, fty, rsrc, code) = fioperand(rsrc)
              fun dstMustBeFreg f =
                  if targetFty <> 64 then
                  let val tmpR = newFreg() 
                      val tmp  = I.FPR tmpR
                  in  mark(f tmp, an); 
                      emit(I.FMOVE{fsize=fsize targetFty, 
                                   src=tmp, dst=RealReg fd})
                  end
                  else mark(f(RealReg fd), an)
          in  case kind of
                REAL => 
                  dstMustBeFreg(fn dst => 
                                   I.FBINOP{fsize=fsize fty, binOp=binOp, 
                                            lsrc=lsrc, rsrc=rsrc, dst=dst}) 
              | INTEGER => 
                  (dstMustBeFreg(fn dst =>
                                    I.FIBINOP{isize=isize fty, binOp=ibinOp, 
                                              lsrc=lsrc, rsrc=rsrc, dst=dst});
                   emits code
                  )
          end
 
      and funop(fty, unOp, src, fd, an) = 
          let val src = foperand(fty, src)
          in  mark(I.FUNOP{fsize=fsize fty,
                           unOp=unOp, src=src, dst=RealReg fd},an)
          end

      and doFexpr''(fty, e, fd, an) = 
         (floatingPointUsed := true;
          case e of
            T.FREG(_,fs) => if CB.sameColor(fs,fd) then () 
                            else fcopy''(fty, [fd], [fs], an)
            (* Stupid x86 does everything as 80-bits internally. *)

            (* Binary operators *)
          | T.FADD(_, a, b) => fbinop(fty, 
                                      I.FADDL, I.FADDL, I.FIADDL, I.FIADDL, 
                                      a, b, fd, an)
          | T.FSUB(_, a, b) => fbinop(fty,
                                      I.FSUBL, I.FSUBRL, I.FISUBL, I.FISUBRL,
                                      a, b, fd, an)
          | T.FMUL(_, a, b) => fbinop(fty,
                                      I.FMULL, I.FMULL, I.FIMULL, I.FIMULL,
                                      a, b, fd, an)
          | T.FDIV(_, a, b) => fbinop(fty,
                                      I.FDIVL, I.FDIVRL, I.FIDIVL, I.FIDIVRL,
                                      a, b, fd, an)

            (* Unary operators *)
          | T.FNEG(_, a) => funop(fty, I.FCHS, a, fd, an)
          | T.FABS(_, a) => funop(fty, I.FABS, a, fd, an)
          | T.FSQRT(_, a) => funop(fty, I.FSQRT, a, fd, an)

            (* Load *)
          | T.FLOAD(fty,ea,mem) => fload''(fty, ea, mem, fd, an)

            (* Type conversions *)
          | T.CVTF2F(_, _, e) => doFexpr''(fty, e, fd, an)
          | T.CVTI2F(_, ty, e) => 
            let val (_, ty, ea, cleanup) = convertIntToFloat(ty, e)
            in  fiload''(ty, ea, fd, an); 
                emits cleanup
            end

          | T.FMARK(e,A.MARKREG f) => (f fd; doFexpr''(fty, e, fd, an))
          | T.FMARK(e, a) => doFexpr''(fty, e, fd, a::an)
          | T.FPRED(e, c) => doFexpr''(fty, e, fd, A.CTRLUSE c::an)
          | T.FEXT fexp =>
             ExtensionComp.compileFext (reducer()) {e=fexp, fd=fd, an=an}
          | _ => error("doFexpr''")
         )

       (*========================================================
        * Tie the two styles of fp code generation together
        *========================================================*)
      and fstore(fty, ea, d, mem, an) = 
          if enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point 
          then fstore''(fty, ea, d, mem, an)
          else fstore'(fty, ea, d, mem, an)
      and fload(fty, ea, d, mem, an) = 
          if enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point 
          then fload''(fty, ea, d, mem, an)
          else fload'(fty, ea, d, mem, an)
      and fexpr e = 
          if enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point 
          then fexpr'' e else fexpr' e
      and doFexpr(fty, e, fd, an) = 
          if enableFastFPMode andalso !fast_floating_point 
          then doFexpr''(fty, e, fd, an)
          else doFexpr'(fty, e, fd, an)

      (*================================================================
       * Optimizations for x := x op y 
       * Special optimizations: 
       * Generate a binary operator, result must in memory.
       * The source must not be in memory
       *================================================================*)
      and binaryMem(binOp, src, dst, mem, an) =
          mark(I.BINARY{binOp=binOp, src=immedOrReg(operand src),
                        dst=address(dst,mem)}, an)
      and unaryMem(unOp, opnd, mem, an) =
          mark(I.UNARY{unOp=unOp, opnd=address(opnd,mem)}, an)

      and isOne(T.LI n) = n = one
        | isOne _ = false

      (* 
       * Perform optimizations based on recognizing 
       *    x := x op y    or
       *    x := y op x 
       * first.
       *)
      and store(ty, ea, d, mem, an, 
                {INC,DEC,ADD,SUB,NOT,NEG,SHL,SHR,SAR,OR,AND,XOR},
                doStore
               ) = 
          let fun default() = doStore(ea, d, mem, an)
              fun binary1(t, t', unary, binary, ea', x) =  
                  if t = ty andalso t' = ty then
                     if MLTreeUtils.eqRexp(ea, ea') then
                        if isOne x then unaryMem(unary, ea, mem, an)
                        else binaryMem(binary, x, ea, mem, an)
                      else default()
                  else default()
              fun unary(t,unOp, ea') = 
                  if t = ty andalso MLTreeUtils.eqRexp(ea, ea') then
                     unaryMem(unOp, ea, mem, an)
                  else default() 
              fun binary(t,t',binOp,ea',x) =
                  if t = ty andalso t' = ty andalso
                     MLTreeUtils.eqRexp(ea, ea') then
                      binaryMem(binOp, x, ea, mem, an)
                  else default()

              fun binaryCom1(t,unOp,binOp,x,y) = 
              if t = ty then
              let fun again() =
                    case y of
                      T.LOAD(ty',ea',_) =>
                        if ty' = ty andalso MLTreeUtils.eqRexp(ea, ea') then
                           if isOne x then unaryMem(unOp, ea, mem, an)
                           else binaryMem(binOp,x,ea,mem,an)
                        else default()
                    | _ => default()
              in  case x of 
                    T.LOAD(ty',ea',_) =>
                      if ty' = ty andalso MLTreeUtils.eqRexp(ea, ea') then
                         if isOne y then unaryMem(unOp, ea, mem, an)
                         else binaryMem(binOp,y,ea,mem,an)
                      else again()
                  | _ => again()
              end 
              else default()

              fun binaryCom(t,binOp,x,y) = 
              if t = ty then
              let fun again() =
                    case y of
                      T.LOAD(ty',ea',_) =>
                        if ty' = ty andalso MLTreeUtils.eqRexp(ea, ea') then
                           binaryMem(binOp,x,ea,mem,an)
                        else default()
                    | _ => default()
              in  case x of 
                    T.LOAD(ty',ea',_) =>
                      if ty' = ty andalso MLTreeUtils.eqRexp(ea, ea') then
                         binaryMem(binOp,y,ea,mem,an)
                      else again()
                  | _ => again()
              end 
              else default()

          in  case d of
                T.ADD(t,x,y) => binaryCom1(t,INC,ADD,x,y)
              | T.SUB(t,T.LOAD(t',ea',_),x) => binary1(t,t',DEC,SUB,ea',x)
              | T.ORB(t,x,y) => binaryCom(t,OR,x,y)
              | T.ANDB(t,x,y) => binaryCom(t,AND,x,y)
              | T.XORB(t,x,y) => binaryCom(t,XOR,x,y)
              | T.SLL(t,T.LOAD(t',ea',_),x) => binary(t,t',SHL,ea',x)
              | T.SRL(t,T.LOAD(t',ea',_),x) => binary(t,t',SHR,ea',x)
              | T.SRA(t,T.LOAD(t',ea',_),x) => binary(t,t',SAR,ea',x)
              | T.NEG(t,T.LOAD(t',ea',_)) => unary(t,NEG,ea')
              | T.NOTB(t,T.LOAD(t',ea',_)) => unary(t,NOT,ea')
              | _ => default()
          end (* store *)
 
          (* generate code for a statement *)
      and stmt(T.MV(_, rd, e), an) = doExpr(e, rd, an)
        | stmt(T.FMV(fty, fd, e), an) = doFexpr(fty, e, fd, an) 
        | stmt(T.CCMV(ccd, e), an) = doCCexpr(e, ccd, an) 
        | stmt(T.COPY(_, dst, src), an) = copy(dst, src, an)
        | stmt(T.FCOPY(fty, dst, src), an) = fcopy(fty, dst, src, an)
        | stmt(T.JMP(e, labs), an) = jmp(e, labs, an)
        | stmt(T.CALL{funct, targets, defs, uses, region, pops, ...}, an) = 
             call(funct,targets,defs,uses,region,[],an, pops)
        | stmt(T.FLOW_TO(T.CALL{funct, targets, defs, uses, region, pops, ...},
                         cutTo), an) = 
             call(funct,targets,defs,uses,region,cutTo,an, pops)
        | stmt(T.RET _, an) = mark(I.RET NONE, an)
        | stmt(T.STORE(8, ea, d, mem), an)  = 
             store(8, ea, d, mem, an, opcodes8, store8)
        | stmt(T.STORE(16, ea, d, mem), an) = 
             store(16, ea, d, mem, an, opcodes16, store16)
        | stmt(T.STORE(32, ea, d, mem), an) = 
             store(32, ea, d, mem, an, opcodes32, store32)

        | stmt(T.FSTORE(fty, ea, d, mem), an) = fstore(fty, ea, d, mem, an)
        | stmt(T.BCC(cc, lab), an) = branch(cc, lab, an)
        | stmt(T.DEFINE l, _) = defineLabel l
        | stmt(T.ANNOTATION(s, a), an) = stmt(s, a::an)
        | stmt(T.EXT s, an) =
             ExtensionComp.compileSext (reducer()) {stm=s, an=an} 
        | stmt(s, _) = doStmts(Gen.compileStm s)

      and doStmt s = stmt(s, [])
      and doStmts ss = app doStmt ss

      and beginCluster' _ =
         ((* Must be cleared by the client.
           * if rewriteMemReg then memRegsUsed := 0w0 else (); 
           *)
          floatingPointUsed := false;
          trapLabel := NONE; 
          beginCluster 0
         )
      and endCluster' a =
         (case !trapLabel
          of NONE => ()
           | SOME(_, lab) => (defineLabel lab; emit(I.INTO))
          (*esac*);
          (* If floating point has been used allocate an extra
           * register just in case we didn't use any explicit register
           *)
          if !floatingPointUsed then (newFreg(); ())
          else ();
          endCluster(a)
         )

      and reducer() = 
          TS.REDUCER{reduceRexp    = expr,
                    reduceFexp    = fexpr,
                    reduceCCexp   = ccExpr,
                    reduceStm     = stmt,
                    operand       = operand,
                    reduceOperand = reduceOpnd,
                    addressOf     = fn e => address(e, I.Region.memory), (*XXX*)
                    emit          = mark',
                    instrStream   = instrStream, 
                    mltreeStream  = self() 
                   }

      and self() =
          TS.S.STREAM
          {  beginCluster   = beginCluster',
             endCluster     = endCluster',
             emit           = doStmt,
             pseudoOp       = pseudoOp,
             defineLabel    = defineLabel,
             entryLabel     = entryLabel,
             comment        = comment,
             annotation     = annotation,
             getAnnotations = getAnnotations,
             exitBlock      = fn mlrisc => exitBlock(cellset mlrisc)
          }

  in  self()
  end 

end (* functor *)

end (* local *)

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