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View of /sml/trunk/src/cm/Doc/A-syntax.tex

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Wed Nov 21 21:03:17 2001 UTC (18 years, 4 months ago) by blume
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Release 110.37 -- see HISTORY
% -*- latex -*-

\section{CM description file syntax}

\subsection{Lexical Analysis}

The CM parser employs a context-sensitive scanner.  In many cases this
avoids the need for ``escape characters'' or other lexical devices
that would make writing description files cumbersome.  (The downside
of this is that it increases the complexity of both documentation and

The scanner skips all nestable SML-style comments (enclosed with {\bf
(*} and {\bf *)}).

Lines starting with {\bf \#line} may list up to three fields separated
by white space.  The first field is taken as a line number and the
last field (if more than one field is present) as a file name.  The
optional third (middle) field specifies a column number.  A line of
this form resets the scanner's idea about the name of the file that it
is currently processing and about the current position within that
file.  If no file is specified, the default is the current file.  If
no column is specified, the default is the first column of the
(specified) line.  This feature is meant for program-generators or
tools such as {\tt noweb} but is not intended for direct use by

The following lexical classes are recognized:

\item[Namespace specifiers:] {\bf structure}, {\bf signature},
{\bf functor}, or {\bf funsig}.  These keywords are recognized
\item[CM keywords:] {\bf group}, {\bf Group}, {\bf GROUP}, {\bf
library}, {\bf Library}, {\bf LIBRARY}, {\bf source}, {\bf Source},
{\bf SOURCE}, {\bf is}, {\bf IS}, {\bf *}, {\bf -}.  These keywords
are recognized everywhere except within ``preprocessor'' lines (lines
starting with {\bf \#}) or following one of the namespace specifiers.
\item[Preprocessor control keywords:] {\bf \#if}, {\bf \#elif}, {\bf
\#else}, {\bf \#endif}, {\bf \#error}.  These keywords are recognized
only at the beginning of the line and indicate the start of a
``preprocessor'' line.  The initial {\bf \#} character may be
separated from the rest of the token by white space (but not by comments).
\item[Preprocessor operator keywords:] {\bf defined}, {\bf div}, {\bf
mod}, {\bf andalso}, {\bf orelse}, {\bf not}.  These keywords are
recognized only when they occur within ``preprocessor'' lines.  Even
within such lines, they are not recognized as keywords when they
directly follow a namespace specifier---in which case they are
considered SML identifiers.
\item[SML identifiers (\nt{mlid}):] Recognized SML identifiers
include all legal identifiers as defined by the SML language
definition. (CM also recognizes some tokens as SML identifiers that
are really keywords according to the SML language definition. However,
this can never cause problems in practice.)  SML identifiers are
recognized only when they directly follow one of the namespace
\item[CM identifiers (\nt{cmid}):] CM identifiers have the same form
as those ML identifiers that are made up solely of letters, decimal
digits, apostrophes, and underscores.  CM identifiers are recognized when they
occur within ``preprocessor'' lines, but not when they directly follow
some namespace specifier.
\item[Numbers (\nt{number}):] Numbers are non-empty sequences of
decimal digits.  Numbers are recognized only within ``preprocessor''
\item[Preprocessor operators:] The following unary and binary operators are
recognized when they occur within ``preprocessor'' lines: {\tt +},
{\tt -}, {\tt *}, {\tt /}, {\tt \%}, {\tt <>}, {\tt !=}, {\tt <=},
{\tt <}, {\tt >=}, {\tt >}, {\tt ==}, {\tt =}, $\tilde{~}$, {\tt
\&\&}, {\tt ||}, {\tt !}.  Of these, the following (``C-style'')
operators are considered obsolete and trigger a warning
message\footnote{The use of {\tt -} as a unary minus also triggers
this warning.} as long as {\tt CM.Control.warn\_obsolete} is set to
{\tt true}: {\tt /}, {\tt \%}, {\tt !=}, {\tt ==}, {\tt \&\&}, {\tt
||}, {\tt !}.
\item[Standard path names (\nt{stdpn}):] Any non-empty sequence of
upper- and lower-case letters, decimal digits, and characters drawn
from {\tt '\_.;,!\%\&\$+/<=>?@$\tilde{~}$|\#*-\verb|^|} that occurs
outside of ``preprocessor'' lines and is neither a namespace specifier
nor a CM keyword will be recognized as a stardard path name.  Strings
that lexically constitute standard path names are usually---but not
always---interpreted as file names. Sometimes they are simply taken as
literal strings.  When they act as file names, they will be
interpreted according to CM's {\em standard syntax} (see
Section~\ref{sec:basicrules}).  (Member class names, names of
privileges, and many tool optios are also specified as standard path
names even though in these cases no actual file is being named.)
\item[Native path names (\nt{ntvpn}):] A token that has the form of an
SML string is considered a native path name.  The same rules as in SML
regarding escape characters apply.  Like their ``standard''
counterparts, native path names are not always used to actually name
files, but when they are, they use the native file name syntax of the
underlying operating system.
\item[Punctuation:] A colon {\bf :} is recognized as a token
everywhere except within ``preprocessor'' lines. Parentheses {\bf ()}
are recognized everywhere.

\subsection{EBNF for preprocessor expressions}

\noindent{\em Lexical conventions:}\/ Syntax definitions use {\em
Extended Backus-Naur Form} (EBNF).  This means that vertical bars
\vb separate two or more alternatives, curly braces \{\} indicate
zero or more copies of what they enclose (``Kleene-closure''), and
square brackets $[]$ specify zero or one instances of their enclosed
contents.  Round parentheses () are used for grouping.  Non-terminal
symbols appear in \nt{this}\/ typeface; terminal symbols are

\noindent The following set of rules defines the syntax for CM's
preprocessor expressions (\nt{ppexp}):

\nt{aatom}  &\ar& \nt{number} \vb \nt{cmid} \vb \tl{(} \nt{asum} \tl{)} \vb (\ttl{$\tilde{~}$} \vb \ttl{-}) \nt{aatom} \\
\nt{aprod}  &\ar& \{\nt{aatom} (\ttl{*} \vb \tl{div} \vb \tl{mod}) \vb \ttl{/} \vb \ttl{\%} \} \nt{aatom} \\
\nt{asum}   &\ar& \{\nt{aprod} (\ttl{+} \vb \ttl{-})\} \nt{aprod} \\
\nt{ns}     &\ar& \tl{structure} \vb \tl{signature} \vb \tl{functor} \vb \tl{funsig} \\
\nt{mlsym}  &\ar& \nt{ns} \nt{mlid} \\
\nt{query}  &\ar& \tl{defined} \tl{(} \nt{cmid} \tl{)} \vb \tl{defined} \tl{(} \nt{mlsym} \tl{)} \\
\nt{acmp}   &\ar& \nt{asum} (\ttl{<} \vb \ttl{<=} \vb \ttl{>} \vb \ttl{>=} \vb \ttl{=} \vb \ttl{==} \vb \ttl{<>} \vb \ttl{!=}) \nt{asum} \\
\nt{batom}  &\ar& \nt{query} \vb \nt{acmp} \vb (\tl{not} \vb \ttl{!}) \nt{batom} \vb \tl{(} \nt{bdisj} \tl{)} \\
\nt{bcmp}   &\ar& \nt{batom} [(\ttl{=} \vb \ttl{==} \vb \ttl{<>} \vb \ttl{!=}) \nt{batom}] \\
\nt{bconj}  &\ar& \{\nt{bcmp} (\tl{andalso} \vb \ttl{\&\&})\} \nt{bcmp} \\
\nt{bdisj}  &\ar& \{\nt{bconj} (\tl{orelse} \vb \ttl{||})\} \nt{bconj} \\
\nt{ppexp} &\ar& \nt{bdisj}

\subsection{EBNF for tool options}

The following set of rules defines the syntax for tool options

\nt{pathname} &\ar& \nt{stdpn} \vb \nt{ntvpn} \\
\nt{toolopts} &\ar& \{ \nt{pathname} [\tl{:} (\tl{(} \nt{toolopts} \tl{)} \vb \nt{pathname})] \}

\subsection{EBNF for export lists}

The following set of rules defines the syntax for export lists (\nt{elst}):

\nt{libkw}         &\ar& \tl{library} \vb \tl{Library} \vb \tl{LIBRARY} \\
\nt{groupkw}       &\ar& \tl{group} \vb \tl{Group} \vb \tl{GROUP} \\
\nt{sourcekw}      &\ar& \tl{source} \vb \tl{Source} \vb \tl{SOURCE} \\
\nt{guardedexports} &\ar& \{ \nt{export} \} (\tl{\#endif} \vb
   \tl{\#else} \{ \nt{export} \} \tl{\#endif} \vb \tl{\#elif} \nt{ppexp} \nt{guardedexports}) \\
\nt{restline}      &\ar& rest of current line up to next newline character \\
\nt{export}        &\ar& \nt{difference} \vb \tl{\#if} \nt{ppexp} \nt{guardedexports} \vb \tl{\#error} \nt{restline}  \\
\nt{difference}    &\ar& \nt{intersection} \vb \nt{difference} \ttl{-} \nt{intersection} \\
\nt{intersection}  &\ar& \nt{atomicset} \vb \nt{intersection} \ttl{*} \nt{atomicset} \\
\nt{atomicset}     &\ar& \nt{mlsym} \vb \nt{union} \vb \nt{implicitset} \\
\nt{union}         &\ar& \tl{(} [ \nt{elst} ] \tl{)} \\
\nt{implicitset}   &\ar& \nt{sourceset} \vb \nt{subgroupset} \vb \nt{libraryset} \\
\nt{sourceset}     &\ar& \nt{sourcekw} \tl{(} (\ttl{-} \vb \nt{pathname}) \tl{)} \\
\nt{subgroupset}   &\ar& \nt{groupkw} \tl{(} (\ttl{-} \vb \nt{pathname}) \tl{)} \\
\nt{libraryset}    &\ar& \nt{libkw} \tl{(} (\nt{pathname}) [\tl{(} \nt{toolopts} \tl{)}] \tl{)} \\
\nt{elst}          &\ar& \nt{export} \{ \nt{export} \} \\

\subsection{EBNF for member lists}

The following set of rules defines the syntax for member lists (\nt{members}):

\nt{class}          &\ar& \nt{stdpn} \\
\nt{member}         &\ar& \nt{pathname} [\tl{:} \nt{class}] [\tl{(} \nt{toolopts} \tl{)}] \\
\nt{guardedmembers} &\ar& \nt{members} (\tl{\#endif} \vb \tl{\#else} \nt{members} \tl{\#endif} \vb \tl{\#elif} \nt{ppexp} \nt{guardedmembers}) \\
\nt{members}        &\ar& \{ (\nt{member} \vb \tl{\#if} \nt{ppexp}
\nt{guardedmembers} \vb \tl{\#error} \nt{restline}) \} 

\subsection{EBNF for library descriptions}

The following set of rules defines the syntax for library descriptions
(\nt{library}).  Notice that although the syntax used for \nt{version}
is the same as that for \nt{stdpn}, actual version strings will
undergo further analysis according to the rules given in

\nt{version}   &\ar& \nt{stdpn} \\
\nt{privilege} &\ar& \nt{stdpn} \\
\nt{lprivspec} &\ar& \{ \nt{privilege} \vb \tl{(} \{ \nt{privilege} \} \tl{)} \} \\
\nt{library}  &\ar& [\nt{lprivspec}] \nt{libkw} [[\tl{(} \nt{version} \tl{)}] \nt{elst}] (\tl{is} \vb \tl{IS}) \nt{members}

\subsection{EBNF for library component descriptions (group descriptions)}

The main differences between group- and library-syntax can be
summarized as follows:

\item Groups use keyword \tl{group} instead of \tl{library}.
\item Groups may have an empty export list.
\item Groups cannot wrap privileges, i.e., names of privileges (in
front of the \tl{group} keyword) never appear within parentheses.
\item Groups have no version.
\item Groups have an optional owner.

\noindent The following set of rules defines the syntax for library
component (group) descriptions (\nt{group}):

\nt{owner}     &\ar& \nt{pathname} \\
\nt{gprivspec} &\ar& \{ \nt{privilege} \} \\
\nt{group}     &\ar& [\nt{gprivspec}] \nt{groupkw} [\tl{(} \nt{owner} \tl{)}] [\nt{elst}] (\tl{is} \vb \tl{IS}) \nt{members}

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