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# Diderot Examples

These examples demonstrate [Diderot language](http://diderot-language.cs.uchicago.edu),
recently described in a [VIS 2015 paper](http://people.cs.uchicago.edu/~glk/pubs/#VIS-2015).
New examples are being added here to help you learn how to use Diderot,
and to provide starting points for writing your own Diderot programs.
The instructions below end with cloning these examples, and compiling them with Diderot.

Diderot is a new language, so patience and constructive engagement is appreciated.
You can help by testing and improving the instructions below on how
to build the Diderot compiler, trying out the example
programs and reporting any problems or confusion, or
contributing new example programs.
Join the [diderot-language](https://goo.gl/kXpxhV) Google group to communicate with us.

The example programs are listed here in order from simple to more complex:

* [`hello`](hello/): Hello world in Diderot
* [`heron`](heron/): A non-trivial program to find square roots, via Heron's method.
Demonstrates input variables, the stabilize method, and 5-argument lerp().
* [`unicode`](unicode/): Computes nothing, but comments include a Diderot Unicode cheatsheet,
with information about the operators that they represent.
* [`tensor`](tensor/): Demonstrates printing, indexing, and multiplication of
tensors, user-defined functions, and differentiation of a vector field.
* [`vimg`](vimg/): Viewing, within a window of specified location and orientation,
of an image or of some of its derived attributes. Demonstrates
having an image dataset as an input variable,
univariate colormapping,
a single-expression function defined with `=`,
and use of `evals` and `evecs` for eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
* [`fs2d`](fs2d/): For generating 2D synthetic datasets. Demonstrates computing on globals at
initialization-time and chained else-if conditionals.
* [`iso2d`](iso2d/): Sampling isocontours with non-interacting particles using
Newton-Raphson iteration. Demonstrates
strands calling `die`,
the `inside` and `normalize` functions,
and finding gradients with ∇.
* [`fs3d`](fs3d/): For generating a variety of interesting 3D synthetic datasets;
similar to but more complicated than [`fs2d`](fs2d/).
Demonstrates a user-defined function for doing quaternion to
rotation matrix conversion, and nested conditional expressions.
* [`mip`](mip/): For maximum-intensity projections through 3D volumes;
Shows a minimal example of setting up a camera and casting rays,
and also provides a setting for demonstrating how better reconstruction
kernels can make a rendering output be invariant with respect to the sampling grid.

Some other directories contain supporting files:
* [`data`](data/): Small sample datasets that can't be generated by program.
* [`cmap`](cmap/): Colormaps

## Building Diderot and these examples

#### (0) Get Cmake, autoconf, and creating $DDRO_ROOT

CMake is needed to build Teem, and autoconf is need to configure the compilation
of Diderot.  These utilities can be obtained via `apt-get` on Ubuntu/Debian Linux,
or via [Homebrew `brew`](http://brew.sh) on OSX.

To get [Cmake](https://cmake.org):
* Linux: `sudo apt-get install cmake`
* OSX: `brew install cmake`
* In any case, the [CMake download](https://cmake.org/download/)
page includes "Binary distributions" that have the executable
`cmake` you'll need.

To get the [GNU autoconf](http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/manual/autoconf.html)
tools (specifically <code>autoconf</code> and <code>autoheader</code>):
* Linux: `sudo apt-get install autoconf`
* OSX: `brew install autoconf`

To keep things contained, you should create a directory (perhaps <code>~/ddro</code>)
to contain all the other software directories referred to below,
and set `$DDRO_ROOT` to refer to it:

	mkdir ddro
	cd ddro
	export DDRO_ROOT=`pwd`

**All shell commands used here assume sh/bash syntax (rather than csh/tcsh).**

#### (1) Get SML/NJ
The Diderot compiler is written in [SML/NJ](http://smlnj.org), so you'll
need to install that first.  **You need at least version 110.77 to build Diderot.**
You can learn the version of the executable `sml` by running

	sml @SMLversion

There are different ways of getting `sml`.

**On OSX**, (using [Homebrew](https://brew.sh)). Assuming that `brew info smlnj`
mentions version 110.77 or higher, then

	brew install smlnj

(possibly followed by `brew link smlnj`) should work.

**On Ubuntu or Debian Linux**, `apt-get` may work to install a sufficiently recent
version.  `apt-cache policy smlnj` reports what version you can get;
if that's at or above version 110.77, you can:

	sudo apt-get install smlnj
	sudo apt-get install ml-lpt
The second `apt-get` to get `ml-lpt` is required because without it, the later compilation
of the Diderot compiler (with the `sml` from `apt-get`) will stop with an error message
like `driver/sources.cm:16.3-16.18 Error: anchor $ml-lpt-lib.cm not defined`.

**To install from files at http://smlnj.org**:
On the SML/NJ [Downloads](http://smlnj.org/dist/working/index.html)
page, go to the topmost "Sofware links: files" link
(currently 110.79) to get files needed to install SML/NJ on your platform.
On OSX there is an installer package to get executables.

Or, you can compile smlnj from source. Doing this on a modern 64-bit
Linux machine requires support for 32-bit executables, since
`sml` is available only as a 32-bit program. You will know you're missing
32-bit support if the `config/install.sh` command below fails
with an error message like "`SML/NJ requires support for 32-bit executables`".
How you fix this will vary between different versions of Linux;
please tell us any specific steps you learn for your specific Linux flavor.

* On Ubuntu: [`sudo apt-get install gcc-multilib`](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/23182765/how-to-install-ia32-libs-in-ubuntu-14-04-lts-trusty-tahr)  (tested on 14.04 and 15.10)

Then, to compile `sml` from files at http://smlnj.org (the `wget` command
is specific to version 110.79; there may now be a newer version):

	mkdir $DDRO_ROOT/smlnj
	cd $DDRO_ROOT/smlnj
	wget http://smlnj.cs.uchicago.edu/dist/working/110.79/config.tgz
	tar xzf config.tgz
	export SMLNJ_CMD=$DDRO_ROOT/smlnj/bin/sml
Once you believe you have `sml` installed, it should either be in your path
(test this with `which sml`), or, if you didn't do this when compiling `sml`
with the steps immediately above:

	export SMLNJ_CMD=/path/to/your/sml
This is required for subsequent Diderot compilation.

#### (2) Get Teem
The Diderot run-time depends on [Teem](http://teem.sourceforge.net).
Teem is overdue for a release, but in the mean time you should build
it from source with CMake, because Diderot (and these examples) assume
the current source.

It is best to build a Teem for Diderot that has *none* of the optional
libraries (PNG, zlib, etc) enabled. Experience has shown that
additional dependencies from Teem will complicate the linking that the
Diderot compiler does.

To get the Teem source and set the
<code>TEEMDDRO</code> variable needed later, run:

	svn co https://svn.code.sf.net/p/teem/code/teem/trunk teem-src
	mkdir teem-ddro
	cd teem-ddro; TEEMDDRO=`pwd`
Then, build Teem and install into `teem-ddro`:

	mkdir $DDRO_ROOT/teem-ddro-build
	cd $DDRO_ROOT/teem-ddro-build
	cmake \
	  -D Teem_PNG=OFF -D Teem_ZLIB=OFF \
	make install
To make sure your build works, try:

	$DDRO_ROOT/teem-ddro/bin/unu --version

Note that we do **not** recommend adding this <code>teem-ddro/bin</code> to your path;
its not very useful.

Instead, post-processing of Diderot output often generates PNG images, which means you'll
want a **separate** Teem build that includes PNG and zlib. You get this with:

	mkdir $DDRO_ROOT/teem-util
	cd $DDRO_ROOT/teem-util; TEEMUTIL=`pwd`
	mkdir $DDRO_ROOT/teem-util-build
	cd $DDRO_ROOT/teem-util-build
	cmake \
	  -D Teem_PNG=ON -D Teem_ZLIB=ON \
	make install
(The difference with the commands above is the `-D Teem_PNG=ON -D Teem_ZLIB=ON`).
To make sure this build includes the useful libraries, try:

	$DDRO_ROOT/teem-util/bin/unu about | tail -n 4

The "Formats available" should include "png", and the
"Nrrd data encodings available" should include "gz".

To add these Teem utilities to your path:

	export PATH=$DDRO_ROOT/teem-util/bin:${PATH}

This will only have an effect for your current shell, you'll have to [take
other steps, depending your environment](https://www.google.com/search?q=adding+paths+at+login+unix),
to ensure that this path is added with every login.

**Note** that `unu dnorm` is used by the Diderot compiler to assert a
canonical representation of orientation and meta-data in Nrrd arrays
to simplify and specialize how that information is incoporated into a
compiled Diderot program.  You can run `unu dnorm` (perhaps followed
by piping into `unu head -`) on your own data to see exactly what it
will do, or to normalize the meta-data prior to compiling the Diderot
program (the normalization is idempotent by definition).

#### (3) Getting Diderot (the various branches)

**NOTE: As Diderot branches are merged, the names and URLs for these may change**

At this point there are different branches with different functionalities;
work on merging them is ongoing.  Any or all of them should be within `$DDRO_ROOT`:


Every branch is available via an "svn co" command below.

The **vis12** branch was created with a
submission in mind. That never happened, and the
[VIS'13](http://ieeevis.org/year/2013/info/vis-welcome/welcome) submission was rejected.
Still, this has become the most mature branch, though it lacks some features from other branches.

	svn co --username anonsvn --password=anonsvn https://svn.smlnj-gforge.cs.uchicago.edu/svn/diderot/branches/vis12

The **vis12-cl** branch is the only one with a working OpenCL backend.  The `diderotc`
compiler from the other branches may advertise a `--target=cl` option, but actually
it only works in the vis12-cl branch.

	svn co --username anonsvn --password=anonsvn https://svn.smlnj-gforge.cs.uchicago.edu/svn/diderot/branches/vis12-cl

The **lamont** branch includes the implementation of strand communication.

	svn co --username anonsvn --password=anonsvn https://svn.smlnj-gforge.cs.uchicago.edu/svn/diderot/branches/lamont

The **charisee** branch includes field "lifting", based on the EIN internal representation.

	svn co --username anonsvn --password=anonsvn https://svn.smlnj-gforge.cs.uchicago.edu/svn/diderot/branches/charisee

**To configure and build** any of these branches, the steps are
the same. Run these commands inside any of the per-branch directories
(such as `$DDRO_ROOT/vis12/`):

	autoheader -Iconfig
	autoconf -Iconfig
	./configure --with-teem=$TEEMDDRO
	make local-install

Note the use of the <code>$TEEMDDRO</code> variable set above, and the possible
(implicit) use of the <code>$SMLNJ_CMD</code> variable also described above.
As long as there are multiple branches in play, "make local-install" makes more sense than "make install".
If your build fails with an error message `anchor $ml-lpt-lib.cm not defined`, you're missing
the ml-lpt library, which you can get through your package manager (such as `sudo apt-get install ml-lpt`) or from the
[SML/NJ](http://smlnj.org/) download page.

Once the build of the Diderot compiler is finished, you can check that it worked by trying:

	bin/diderotc --help

#### (4) Get the examples:

	git clone https://github.com/Diderot-Language/examples.git

#### (5) Try compiling and running the "hello world" example [`hello`](hello/):

	cd $DDRO_ROOT/examples/hello
	../../vis12/bin/diderotc --exec hello.diderot

Running `./hello` should print "hello, world".  Every Diderot program,
even this trivial one, produces an output file. `hello` created `out.nrrd`,
a container for a single int.  We can check its contents with:

	unu save -f text -i out.nrrd

which should show "42".  If you've gotten this far, you have successfully
built Diderot, and compiled and run a Diderot program!

#### (6) Try the rest of the examples

The beginning of this README.md lists the examples in a sensible order for
reading and experimenting, from simple to complex (after [`hello`](hello/)
is [`heron`](heron/)).  The idea is that later
examples build on ideas and features shown in earlier examples.

If you use Diderot for your own research or teaching, please share it with
the [diderot-language](https://goo.gl/kXpxhV) Google group, and consider
adding some new examples here.

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