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**4918**- (**download**) (**annotate**)*Wed Feb 15 20:40:37 2017 UTC*(2 years, 1 month ago) by*glk*File size: 11502 byte(s)

synching with github example circle.diderot (except for reading circle-vec2.nrrd instead of vec2.nrrd) to reduce confusion

/* ========================================== ## circle.diderot: Mutually-repelling particles on a unit circle This example computes a system of mutually-repelling particles constrained to the unit circle. The particles are initialized from a given sequence of a 2-vectors, and each update tries to move each particle to a lower potential energy, as determined by looking at nearby particles. As in the [`life.diderot`](../life) example that introduced strand communication, the special strand variable named `pos` indicates the particle position, and the computation is monitored via a `global` update method. Like [`sieve.diderot`](../sieve), this program computes global reductions in the global update, used here to compute the coefficient-of-variation of nearest inter-particle distances, as the basis of a geometric test of convergence. Like the [`life.diderot`](../life) example, we use snapshots to inspect the system state as it progresses, so we compile with: diderotc --snapshot --double --exec circle.diderot When compiling with `--double`, Diderot represents the `real` type as a `double` in C++, instead of the default `float`, which produces more accurate results. The following creates a list of `N` randomly oriented unit-length 2-vectors in `vec2.nrrd` which will be the initial input. Setting the random number seed of `unu 1op nrand` with `-s RNG` ensures reproducible results, or you can leave that out to give different results each time. N=60 RNG=42 eval echo {1..$[2*N]} | unu reshape -s 2 $N | unu 1op nrand -s $RNG -o vec2.nrrd unu project -i vec2.nrrd -a 0 -m l2 | unu axinsert -a 0 -s 2 | unu 2op / vec2.nrrd - -o vec2.nrrd Then to run with snapshots saved every iteration (`-s 1`), but limiting the program to 500 iterations (`-l 500`), as well as cleaning results from previous run: rm -f pos-????.nrrd pos.nrrd ./circle -s 1 -l 500 If this fails with `ERROR: unexpected arg (or unrecognized flag): "-s"`, it means that `circle` wasn't compiled with `--snapshot`, as above. It should converge in under 500 iterations, producing many `pos-????.nrrd` files, which we can post-process with: export NRRD_STATE_VERBOSE_IO=0 for PIIN in pos-????.nrrd; do IIN=${PIIN#*-} II=${IIN%.*} echo "post-processing snapshot $II ... " unu dice -i $PIIN -a 0 -o ./ unu 2op atan2 0.nrrd 1.nrrd | unu histax -a 0 -min -pi -max pi -b 800 -t float -o angle-$II.nrrd done rm -f 0.nrrd 1.nrrd unu join -i angle-*.nrrd -a 1 | unu quantize -b 8 -min 0 -max 1 -o angles.png rm -f angle-????.nrrd This produces `angles.png` by unrolling (with atan2) positions along the circle, and laying these out along horizontal scanlines, one per iteration. The result should look something like [angles-ref.png](angles-ref.png). It is clear that the particle interactions made a roughly uniform distribution early on, but subsequent refinements took longer. Scrutinizing the top of the image shows where strands were stationary either because they repeatedly backtracked in the Armijo line search (until they found a step size that led to a sufficient energy decrease), or because they had no other particles to interact with. Some experiments that can be tried with this example: * If `--double` is removed from the compilation, the system may not converge to the default `eps` before the iteration limit, due to the decrease in numerical accuracy. * There are different possible inter-particle potentials `phi` (uncomment one at a time), which can lead to different dynamics and different convergence speed towards a uniform distribution. * If the interaction radius `rad` is decreased while maintining the number of particles, gaps may form. * Increasing radius `rad` will tend to force convergence faster, at the expense of computing more particle interactions. * There are constants associated with Armijo line search, changing them may lead to faster convergence. ========================================== */ /* The file containing a sequence (read via "load") currently undergoes no compile-time analysis, but there is a run-time check on the shape of the array. A sequence of scalars should come from a 1-D array, and a sequence of any other kind of value should come from a 2-D array: the faster axis should contain the components per value, and the sequence of values is along the slower axis. The filename "-" may be used to say that the sequence should be read from standard in. A text file (one value per line) may be used for non-scalar sequences. */ input vec2{} ipos ("initial positions for all particles") = load("circle-vec2.nrrd"); input real rad ("radius of particle's potential energy support") = 0.25; input real eps ("system convergence threshold, computed as the coefficient-of-variation of distances to nearest neighbors") = 0.01; real hhInit = 1; // initial step size real stepMax = rad; // limit on distance to travel per iter int iter = 0; // which iteration we're on /* phi defines the potential energy around a particle, as a function of distance from particle r > 0. By design, the potential function smoothly falls to 0 at r == 1, so that the potential has compact support, which simplifies computing the inter-particle interactions. phi'(r) is the derivative of phi(r). The ' in phi' is merely suggestive; ' is not acting as an operator. Below are some different possibilities for phi and phi'; only one should be uncommented. In a conservative force field, force is the *negative* gradient of some potential. While phi(r) is the potential at r > 0, due to a particle at 0, it can also be considered as the potential at 0, due to a particle at r. Moving closer to the particle at r by a small dr > 0, the change in potential is dphi = -phi'(r)*dr, which is positive for a monotonically decreasing phi(r). The force at 0, or negative gradient of the potential, is then phi'(r), which justifies how no negation is used in the frc() definition below, based on phi'(). */ // phi(0) and phi'(0) are bounded function real phi(real r) = (1 - r)^4; function real phi'(real r) = -4*(1 - r)^3; /* // electrostatic potential 1/r, scaled to be C^2 continuous with 0 at r==1 function real phi(real r) = (1/r)*(1 - r)^3; function real phi'(real r) = 3 - 1/(r^2) - 2*r; */ /* // Cotangent-based potential from Meyer et al. SMI'05 function real phi(real r) = 1/tan(r*π/2) + r*π/2 - π/2; function real phi'(real r) = (π/2)*(1 - (1/sin(r*π/2))^2); */ /* The enr and frc functions use phi and phi' to define the potential due to, and force from, a particle at 2-D offset x with a potential field extending to radius rad. */ function real enr(vec2 x) = phi(|x|/rad); function vec2 frc(vec2 x) = phi'(|x|/rad) * (1/rad) * x/|x|; // chain rule /* The particle is initialized at position pos0 */ strand particle (vec2 pos0) { /* These strand variables are visible to the global update and to other strands making spatial queries. Any variable inside the scope of update{} will not be visible in this way. NOTE: "pos" is the special variable name that *must* be used to enable spatial queries of neighboring particles via sphere(). */ output vec2 pos = pos0/|pos0|; real hh = hhInit; vec2 step = [0,0]; // step along force real closest = 0; // distance to closest neighbor int ncount = 0; // how many neighbors did we have update { // Compute energy and forces on us from neighbors real energyLast = 0; vec2 force = [0,0]; ncount = 0; foreach (particle P in sphere(rad)) { energyLast += enr(P.pos - pos); force += frc(P.pos - pos); ncount += 1; } if (0 == ncount) { /* no neighbors; do nothing to do but set closest to big value */ closest = rad; continue; } // Else we have interacting neighbors vec2 norm = normalize(pos); // surface normal for unit circle // project force onto tangent surface force = (identity[2] - norm⊗norm)•force; /* Limiting the step size (even before testing for sufficient decrease, below) helps keep particles near the surface they are supposed to be sampling; this precaution matters more with a non-trivial (data-driven) constraint surface */ step = hh*force; // compute step along force if (|step| > stepMax) { // decrease hh by factor by which step was too big hh *= stepMax/|step|; // and find smaller step (of length stepMax) step = hh*force; } // take step and re-apply constraint vec2 posLast = pos; pos = normalize(pos + step); // find energy at new location, and distance to closest neighbor real energy = 0; closest = rad; foreach (particle P in sphere(rad)) { energy += enr(P.pos - pos); closest = min(closest, |P.pos - pos|); } // save actual step taken step = pos - posLast; /* The Armijo-Goldstein sufficient decrease condition: The potential gradient, -force, dotted with change in position (pos - posLast), should predict the change in potential (energy - energyLast), which should be negative. If the potential change is too large (not negative enough), decrease step size and try again on the next iteration. */ if (energy - energyLast > 0.5*(pos - posLast)•(-force)) { hh *= 0.5; // backtrack pos = posLast; } else { hh *= 1.02; // opportunistically increase step size } } } /* In some programs, like ../heron/heron.diderot, strands can individually determine when they have converged, and then execute "stabilize". In this kind of particle system, the judgement of convergence has to come from a more global view of the state of computation. This global update monitors the particle system by measuring how uniformly the points are distributed along the circle, based on the coefficient of variation of distances to nearest neighbors. If the result has converged sufficiently, the "stabilize" here results in all active strands being stabilized (and all their stabilize{} methods would be called, if they had them). On the other hand, if it is clear that the computation cannot converge, global update can also call "die". */ global { // Convergence test could be based on movement //real mvmt = max { |P.step|/rad | P in particle.all}; // This tests convergence based on distances to closest neighbor real meancl = mean { P.closest | P in particle.all}; real varicl = mean { (P.closest - meancl)^2 | P in particle.all}; real covcl = sqrt(varicl) / meancl; print("(iter ", iter, ") mean(hh)=", mean { P.hh | P in particle.all}, "; COV(closest) = ", covcl, "\n"); if (covcl < eps) { print("Stabilizing with COV(closest) ", covcl, " < ", eps, " (iter ", iter, ")\n"); stabilize; } iter += 1; } /* In this example, there is no "population control" (with "new" or "die"), so the set of strands is constant throughout the program execution. It thus doesn't matter if the strands are created via "initially {}" (a collection of strands) or "initially []" (an array of strands). We create a collection of strands here to be consistent with future particle system examples.*/ initially { particle(ipos[ii]) | ii in 0 .. length(ipos)-1 };

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