Standard ML

Standard ML is a safe, modular, strict, functional, polymorphic programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference, garbage collection, exception handling, immutable data types and updatable references, abstract data types, and parametric modules. It has efficient implementations and a formal definition with a proof of soundness.
ML is safe, in that a program that passes the type-checker cannot dump core, access private fields of abstract data types, mistake integers for pointers, or otherwise "go wrong."
The Standard ML module system supports modules (called structures) and interfaces (called signatures); the signature of a module determines what components and types from the module are visible from outside. There is a flexible system for matching structures to signatures: there can be several different views (signatures) of the same structure, and there can be several different implementations (structures) matching the same signature.
ML has higher-order functions: functions can be passed as arguments, stored in data structures, and returned as results of function calls. Functions can be statically nested within other functions; this lexical scoping mechanism gives the ability to create "new" functions at run time.
Function calls in ML, like those of C, Pascal, C++, Java, etc., evaluate their arguments before entering the body of the function. Such a language is called strict or call-by-value, in contrast to some functional programming languages that are lazy or call-by-need. Strict evaluation makes it easier for the programmer to reason about the execution of the program.
ML supports polymorphic functions and data types. Data-type polymorphism allows a single type declaration (such as "list") to describe lists of integers, lists of strings, lists of lists of integers, and so on; but the programmer can be assured that, given an "int list", every element really is an "int". Function polymorphism allows a single function declaration (such as filter_list) to operate on lists of integers, lists of strings, lists of integer-lists, and so on, avoid needless duplication of code.
Compile-time type checking
Programmers in compile-time type-checked languages get the benefit not only of faster execution but also less debugging: many of the programmer's mistakes can be caught early in the development process; and the types may lead to clearer thinking about the program's specification.
Type inference
The ML programmer need not write down the type of every variable and function-parameter: the compiler can usually calculate the type from context. This makes programs more concise and easier to write.
Garbage collection
Automatic deallocation of unreachable data makes programs simpler, cleaner, and more reliable.
Exception handling
ML's exception-handling mechanism -- similar to the ones in C++, Java, Ada, etc. -- provides dynamic nesting of handlers and eliminates the need for ad hoc, special exceptional return values from functions.
Immutable data types
In ML, most variables and data structures -- once created and initialized -- are immutable, meaning that they are never changed, updated, or stored into. This leads to some powerful guarantees of noninterference by different parts of the program operating on those data structures. In a functional language such as ML, one tends to build new data structures (and let the old ones be garbage collected) instead of modifying old ones.
Updatable references
However, ML does have updatable (assignable) reference types, so that in those cases where destructive update is the most natural way to express an algorithm, one can express it directly.
Abstract data types
ML supports information hiding, so that one can implement a data type whose representation is hidden by an interface that just exports functions to construct and operate on the type.
Parametric modules
A functor is an ML program module takes the signature of another module as an argument. The functor can then be applied to any module matching that signature. This facility is like the template of C++ or the generic of Ada or Modula-3, but in ML the functor can be completely type-checked and compiled to machine code before it is applied to its argument(s); this leads to better program modularity.
Efficient implementations
Features such as polymorphism, parametric modules, and a heavy reliance on garbage collection have meant that compiling ML to efficient machine code requires techniques not usually necessary in C compilers. Several Standard ML compilers generate high-quality machine code, including Standard ML of New Jersey and Harlequin ML Works.
Formal definition
The ML language is clearly specified by The Definition of Standard ML (Revised) (Milner, Tofte, Harper, MacQueen, MIT Press, 1997), which defines the language in 93 pages of mathematical notation and English prose. This book is not meant for the casual reader, but it is accessible to the serious student of programming languages and its existence and accessibility provide an implementation-independent formulation of Standard ML.
Proof of soundness
A consequence of having the language definition in a formal notation is that one can prove important properties of the language, such as deterministic evaluation or soundness of type-checking.

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