Home My Page Projects Code Snippets Project Openings SML/NJ
 Summary Activity Forums Tracker Lists Tasks Docs Surveys News SCM Files

# SCM Repository

[smlnj] View of /sml/branches/SMLNJ/src/ml-yacc/doc/mlyacc.tex
 [smlnj] / sml / branches / SMLNJ / src / ml-yacc / doc / mlyacc.tex

# View of /sml/branches/SMLNJ/src/ml-yacc/doc/mlyacc.tex

Sat Oct 4 23:33:46 1997 UTC (23 years, 7 months ago)
File size: 60458 byte(s)
This commit was manufactured by cvs2svn to create branch 'SMLNJ'.
\documentstyle{article}
\title{                        ML-Yacc User's Manual \\
Version 2.3
}
\author{                David R. Tarditi$^1$\\
Andrew W. Appel$^2$\\
\\
$^1$School of Computer Science \\
Carnegie Mellon University \\
Pittsburgh, PA 15213 \\
\\
$^2$Department of Computer Science \\
Princeton University \\
Princeton, NJ 08544
}
\date{October 6, 1994}

\begin{document}
\maketitle
\begin{center}
(c) 1989, 1990, 1991,1994 Andrew W. Appel, David R. Tarditi
\end{center}

{\bf
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.  It is subject only to
the terms of the ML-Yacc NOTICE, LICENSE, and DISCLAIMER (in the
file COPYRIGHT distributed with this software).
}

New in this version:  Improved error correction directive \verb|%change|
that allows multi-token insertions, deletions, substitutions.

\newpage
\tableofcontents
\newpage

\section{Introduction}
\subsection{General}
ML-Yacc is a parser generator for Standard ML modeled after the
Yacc parser generator.  It generates parsers for LALR languages, like Yacc,
and has a similar syntax.  The generated parsers use a different algorithm
for recovering from syntax errors than parsers generated by Yacc.
The algorithm is a partial implementation of an algorithm described in \cite{bf}.
A parser tries to recover from a syntax error
by making a single token insertion, deletion, or
substitution near the point in the input stream at which the error
was detected.  The parsers delay the evaluation of semantic actions until
parses are completed successfully.  This makes it possible for
parsers to recover from syntax errors that occur before the point
of error detection, but it does prevent the parsers from
affecting lexers in any significant way.  The parsers
can insert tokens with values and substitute tokens with values
for other tokens. All symbols carry left and right position values
which are available to semantic actions and are used in
syntactic error messages.

ML-Yacc uses context-free grammars to specify the syntax of languages to
be parsed.  See \cite{ahu} for definitions and information on context-free
grammars and LR parsing.  We briefly review some terminology here.  A
context-free grammar is defined by a set of terminals $T$, a set of
nonterminals $NT$, a set of productions $P$, and a start
nonterminal $S$.
Terminals are interchangeably referred to as tokens.  The terminal
and nonterminal sets are assumed to be disjoint.  The set of symbols is the
union of the nonterminal and terminal sets.  We use lower case
Greek letters to denote a string of symbols.  We use upper case
Roman letters near the beginning of the alphabet to denote nonterminals.
Each production gives a
derivation of a string of symbols from a nonterminal, which we will
write as $A \rightarrow \alpha$.  We define a relation between strings of
symbols $\alpha$ and $\beta$, written $\alpha \vdash \beta$ and read
as $\alpha$ derives $\beta$, if and only if $\alpha = \delta A \gamma$,
$\beta = \delta \phi \gamma$ and
there exists some production $A \rightarrow \phi$.  We write the
transitive closure of this relation as
$\vdash_*$. We say that a string of terminals $\alpha$ is a valid sentence
of the language, {\em i.e.} it is derivable, if the start symbol
$S \vdash_* \alpha$.   The sequence of derivations is often
visualized as a parse tree.

ML-Yacc uses an attribute grammar scheme with synthesized attributes.
Each symbol in the grammar may have a value (i.e. attribute) associated
with it.  Each production has a semantic action associated with it.
A production with a semantic action is called a rule.
Parsers perform bottom-up, left-to-right evaluations of parse trees using semantic
actions to compute values as they do so.  Given a production
$P = A \rightarrow \alpha$, the corresponding semantic action is
used to compute a value for $A$ from the values of the symbols in $\alpha$.
If $A$ has no value, the semantic action is still evaluated but the value is ignored.
Each parse returns the value associated with the start symbol $S$ of the
grammar.  A parse returns a nullary value if the start symbol does not carry a value.

The synthesized attribute scheme can be adapted easily to inherited
attributes. An inherited attribute is a value which propagates from
a nonterminal to the symbols produced by the nonterminal according to
some rule.  Since functions are values in ML,
the semantic actions for the derived symbols
can return functions which takes the
inherited value as an argument.

\subsection{Modules}
ML-Yacc uses the ML modules facility to specify the interface between
a parser that it generates and a lexical analyzer that must be supplied
by you.  It also uses the ML modules facility to factor out
a set of modules that are common to every generated parser.
These common modules include a parsing structure, which contains
an error-correcting LR parser\footnote{A plain LR parser is also
available.}, an LR table structure, and a structure
which defines the representation of terminals.  ML-Yacc produces
a functor for a particular parser parameterized by the LR table
structure and the representation of terminals.  This functor
contains values specific to the parser, such as the
LR table for the parser\footnote{The LR table is a value.  The
LR table structure defines an abstract LR table type.}, the
semantic actions for the parser, and a structure containing
the terminals for the parser.   ML-Yacc produces a signature
for the structure produced by applying this functor
and another signature for the structure containing the terminals for
the parser.  You must
supply a functor for the lexing module parameterized this
structure.

Figure 1 is a dependency diagram of the modules that summarizes this
information.  A module at the head of an arrow is dependent
on the module at the tail.

\begin{figure}
\begin{tabular}{|rcl|}
\hline
parsing structure & $\longrightarrow$ & values for a particular parser\\
values for a particular parser & $\longrightarrow$ & lexical analyzer\\
parsing structure, & $\longrightarrow$ & particular parser\\
values for a particular parser, & & \\
lexical analyzer & & \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{Module Dependencies}
\end{figure}

\subsection{Error Recovery}

The error recovery algorithm is able to accurately recover
from many single token syntax errors.
It tries to make a single token correction at the token in the
input stream at which the syntax error was detected and any of
the 15 tokens\footnote{An arbitrary number chosen because numbers
above this do not seem to improve error correction much.} before that token.  The algorithm
checks corrections before the point of error detection because
a syntax error is often not detected until several tokens beyond
the token which caused the error.\footnote{An LR parser detects a syntax error
as soon as possible, but this does not necessarily mean that the
token at which the error was detected caused the error.}

The algorithm works by trying corrections at each
of the 16 tokens up to and including the token at which the
error was detected.  At each token in the input stream, it
will try deleting the token, substituting other tokens for the
token, or inserting some other token before the token.

The algorithm uses a parse check to evaluate corrections.  A parse
check is a check of how far a correction allows a parser to
parse without encountering a syntax error.
You pass an upper bound on how many tokens beyond the error
point a parser may read while doing a parse check as an argument to the
parser.  This allows
for different kinds of systems.  For an interactive system, you
should set the lookahead to zero.  Otherwise, a parser may hang
waiting for input in the case of a syntax error.  If the lookahead
is zero, no syntax errors will be corrected.  For a batch system,
you should set the lookahead to 15.

The algorithm selects the set of corrections which allows the parse
to proceed the farthest
and parse through at least the error token.  It then removes those
corrections involving keywords which do not meet a longer minimum
parse check.  If there is more than one correction possible after this,
it uses a simple heuristic priority scheme to order the corrections,
and then arbitrarily chooses one of the corrections with the highest priority.
You have some control over the priority scheme by being able to
name a set of preferred insertions and a set of preferred substitutions.
The priorities for corrections, ordered from highest to lowest
priority, are
preferred insertions, preferred substitutions, insertions, deletions,
and substitutions.

The error recovery algorithm is guaranteed to terminate since it always
selects fixes which parse through the
error token.

The error-correcting LR parser implements the algorithm by keeping
a queue of its state stacks before shifting tokens and using
a lazy stream for the lexer.
This makes it possible to restart the
parse from before an error point and try various corrections.  The
error-correcting LR parser does not defer semantic actions.  Instead,
ML-Yacc creates semantic actions which are free of side-effects
and always terminate.
ML-Yacc uses higher-order functions to defer the
evaluation of all user semantic actions until the parse is successfully
completed without constructing an explicit parse tree.
You may declare whether your semantic actions are free of side-effects
and always terminate, in which case ML-Yacc does not need to defer
the evaluation of your semantic actions.

\subsection{Precedence}
ML-Yacc uses the same precedence scheme as Yacc for resolving
shift/reduce conflicts.  Each terminal may be assigned a precedence and
associativity.  Each rule is then assigned the precedence of its rightmost
terminal.  If a shift/reduce conflict occurs, the conflict is resolved
silently if the terminal and the rule in the conflict have
precedences.
If the terminal has the higher precedence, the shift is chosen.  If
the rule has the higher precedence, the reduction is chosen.  If both
the terminal and the rule have the same precedence, then the associativity
of the terminal is used to resolve the conflict.  If the terminal is
left associative, the reduction is chosen.  If the terminal is
right associative, the shift is chosen.   Terminals may be declared to
be nonassociative, also, in which case an error message is produced
if the associativity is need to resolve the parsing conflict.

If a terminal or a rule in a shift/reduce conflict does not have
a precedence, then an error message is produced and the shift
is chosen.

In reduce/reduce conflicts, an error message is always produced and
the first rule listed in the specification is chosen for reduction.
\subsection{Notation}

Text surrounded by brackets denotes meta-notation.  If you see
something like \{parser name\}, you should substitute the actual
name of your parser for the meta-notation.  Text in a bold-face
typewriter font ({\tt like this}) denotes text in a specification
or ML code.

\section{ML-Yacc specifications}

An ML-Yacc specification consists of three parts, each of which is
separated from the others by a {\tt \%\%} delimiter.  The general format is:
\begin{quote}
\tt
\{user declarations\} \\
\%\% \\
\{ML-Yacc declarations\} \\
\%\% \\
\{rules\}
\end{quote}

You can define values available in the semantic
actions of the rules in the user declarations section.
It is recommended that you keep the size of this
section as small as possible and place large
blocks of code in other modules.

The ML-Yacc declarations section is used to make a set
of required declarations and a set of optional declarations.
You must declare the nonterminals and terminals and the
types of the values associated with them there.  You must
also name the parser and declare the type of position values.
You should specify the set of terminals which can follow
the start symbol and the set of non-shiftable terminals.
You may optionally declare precedences for terminals,
make declarations that will
improve error-recovery, and suppress the generation of
default reductions in the parser.  You may
declare whether the parser generator should create
a verbose description of the parser in a .desc'' file.  This is useful
for finding the causes of shift/reduce errors and other parsing conflicts.

You may also declare whether the semantic actions are
free of significant side-effects and always terminate.  Normally, ML-Yacc
delays the evaluation of semantic actions until the completion of a
successful parse.  This ensures that there will be no semantic actions
to undo'' if a syntactic error-correction invalidates some semantic
actions.  If, however, the semantic actions are free of significant
side-effects and always terminate, the results of semantic actions that
are invalidated by a syntactic error-correction can always be safely
ignored.

Parsers run faster and need less memory when it is not
necessary to delay the evaluation of semantic actions.  You are
encouraged to write semantic actions that are free of side-effects and
always terminate and to declare this information to ML-Yacc.

A semantic action is free of significant side-effects if it can be reexecuted
a reasonably small number of times without affecting the result of a
parse.  (The reexecution occurs when the error-correcting parser is testing
possible corrections to fix a syntax error, and the number of times
reexecution occurs is roughly bounded, for each syntax error, by the number of
terminals times the amount of lookahead permitted for the error-correcting
parser).

The rules section contains the context-free grammar productions and their
associated semantic actions.

\subsection{Lexical Definitions}

Comments have the same lexical definition as they do in Standard
ML and can be placed anywhere in a specification.

All characters up to the first occurrence of a delimiting
{\tt  \%\%} outside of
a comment are placed in the user declarations section.  After that, the
following words and symbols are reserved:
\begin{quote}

\verb'of for = { } , * -> : | ( )'

\end{quote}

The following classes of ML symbols are used:
\begin{quote}
\begin{description}
\item[identifiers:]
nonsymbolic ML identifiers, which consist
of an alphabetic character followed by one or
more alphabetic characters, numeric characters,
primes {\tt '}'', or underscores {\tt \_}''.
\item[type variables:]
nonsymbolic ML identifier starting with a prime {\tt '}''
\item[integers:] one or more decimal digits.
\item[qualified identifiers:] an identifer followed by a period.

\end{description}
\end{quote}
The following classes of non-ML symbols are used:
\begin{quote}
\begin{description}
\item[\% identifiers:]
a percent sign followed by one or more lowercase
alphabet letters.  The valid \% identifiers
are:
\begin{quote}
\raggedright
\tt
\%arg \%eop \%header \%keyword \%left \%name \%nodefault
\%nonassoc \%nonterm \%noshift \%pos \%prec \%prefer
\%pure \%right \%start \%subst \%term \%value \%verbose
\end{quote}
\item[code:]
This class is meant to hold ML code.  The ML code is not
parsed for syntax errors.  It consists of a left parenthesis
followed by all characters up to a balancing right
parenthesis.  Parentheses in ML comments and ML strings
are excluded from the count of balancing parentheses.

\end{description}
\end{quote}

\subsection{Grammar}

This is the grammar for specifications:
\begin{eqnarray*}
\mbox{spec} & ::= & \mbox{user-declarations {\tt \%\%} cmd-list {\tt \%\%} rule-list} \\
\mbox{ML-type} & ::= & \mbox{nonpolymorphic ML types (see the Standard ML manual)} \\
\mbox{symbol} & ::= & \mbox{identifier} \\
\mbox{symbol-list} & ::= & \mbox{symbol-list symbol} \\
&  | & \epsilon \\
\mbox{symbol-type-list} & ::= & \mbox{symbol-type-list {\tt |} symbol {\tt of} ML-type} \\
& | & \mbox{symbol-type list {\tt |} symbol} \\
& | & \mbox{symbol {\tt of} ML-type} \\
& | & \mbox{symbol} \\
\mbox{subst-list} & ::= & \mbox{subst-list {\tt |} symbol {\tt for} symbol} \\
&  |  & \epsilon \\
\mbox{cmd} & ::= & \mbox{{\tt \%arg} (Any-ML-pattern) {\tt :} ML-type} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%eop} symbol-list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%header} code} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%keyword} symbol-list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%left} symbol-list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%name} identifier} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%nodefault}} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%nonassoc} symbol-list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%nonterm} symbol-type list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%noshift} symbol-list } \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%pos} ML-type} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%prefer} symbol-list} \\
& | & \mbox{\tt \%pure} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%right} symbol-list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%start} symbol} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%subst} subst-list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%term} symbol-type-list} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%value} symbol code} \\
& | & \mbox{{\tt \%verbose}} \\
\mbox{cmd-list} & ::= &\mbox{ cmd-list cmd} \\
& | & \mbox{cmd} \\
\mbox{rule-prec} & ::= & \mbox{{\tt \%prec} symbol} \\
&  | & \epsilon \\
\mbox{clause-list} & ::= & \mbox{symbol-list rule-prec code} \\
&  | &  \mbox{clause-list {\tt |} symbol-list rule-prec code} \\
\mbox{rule} & ::= & \mbox{symbol {\tt :} clause-list} \\
\mbox{rule-list} & ::= & \mbox{rule-list rule} \\
&  |  & \mbox{rule}
\end{eqnarray*}
\subsection{Required ML-Yacc Declarations}
\begin{description}
\item[{\tt \%name}]
You must specify the name of the parser with {\tt \%name} \{name\}.
\item[{\tt \%nonterm} and {\tt \%term}]
You must define the terminal and nonterminal sets using the
{\tt \%term} and {\tt \%nonterm}
declarations, respectively.  These declarations are like an ML datatype
definition.
The type of the value that a symbol may carry is defined at the same time
that the symbol is defined.  Each declarations consists of the keyword
({\tt \%term} or {\tt \%nonterm})
followed by a list of symbol entries separated by a bar ({\tt |}'').
Each symbol entry is a symbol name followed by an optional
of \/ $<$ML-type$>$''. The types cannot be polymorphic.
Those symbol entries without a type carry no value.
Nonterminal and terminal names must be disjoint and no name may be declared
more than once in either declaration.

The symbol names and types are used to construct a datatype union for the
values on the semantic stack in the LR parser and to name the values
associated with subcomponents of a rule.  The names and types of
terminals are also used to construct a signature for a structure that
may be passed to the lexer functor.

Because the types and names are used in these manners, do
not use ML keywords as symbol names.   The programs produced by ML-Yacc
will not compile if ML keywords are used as symbol names.
Make sure that the types specified in the {\tt \%term} declaration are
fully qualified types or are available in the background
environment when the signatures produced by ML-Yacc are loaded.  Do
not use any locally defined types from the user declarations section of
the specification.

These requirements on the types in the {\tt \%term} declaration are not
a burden.
They force the types to be defined in another module,
which is a good idea since these types will
be used in the lexer module.
\item[{\tt \%pos}]
You must declare the type of position values using the {\tt \%pos} declaration.
The syntax is {\tt \%pos} $<$ML-type$>$.
This type MUST be the same type as that which is actually found in the lexer.
It cannot be polymorphic.

\end{description}
\subsection{Optional ML-Yacc Declarations}
\label{optional-def}
\begin{description}
\item[{\tt \%arg}]
You may want each invocation of the entire parser to be parameterized
by a particular argument, such as the file-name of the input
being parsed in an invocation of the parser.  The {\tt \%arg} declaration
allows you to specify such an argument.
(This is often cleaner than using global'' reference variables.)
The declaration
\begin{quote}

{\tt \%arg} (Any-ML-pattern) {\tt :} $<$ML-type$>$

\end{quote}
specifies the argument to the parser, as well as its type.  For example:
\begin{quote}

{\tt \%arg (filename) : string}

\end{quote}

If {\tt \%arg} is not specified, it defaults to {\tt () : unit}.
\item[{\tt \%eop} and {\tt \%noshift}]
You should specify the set of
terminals that may follow the start
symbol, also called end-of-parse symbols, using the {\tt \%eop}
declaration.  The {\tt \%eop} keyword should be followed by the list of
terminals.  This is useful, for example, in an interactive system
where you want to force the evaluation of a statement before an
end-of-file (remember, a parser delays the execution of semantic
actions until a parse is successful).

ML-Yacc has no concept of an end-of-file.  You must
define an end-of-file terminal (EOF, perhaps) in the
{\tt \%term} declaration.
You must declare terminals which cannot be shifted, such as
end-of-file, in the {\tt \%noshift} declaration.  The
{\tt \%noshift} keyword should be followed by the list of non-shiftable
terminals. An error message will be printed if a non-shiftable terminal
is found on the right hand side of any rule, but ML-Yacc will not prevent
you from using such grammars.

It is important to emphasize that
\begin{em}
non-shiftable terminals must be declared.
\end{em}
The error-correcting parser may attempt to read past such terminals
while evaluating a correction to a syntax error otherwise.  This may
confuse the lexer.
\begin{samepage}
You may define code to head the functor \{parser name\}LrValsFun here.  This
The functor must be parameterized by the Token structure, so
the declaration should always have the form:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
structure Token : TOKEN
...)
)
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}
\end{samepage}
\item[{\tt \%left},{\tt \%right},{\tt \%nonassoc}]
You should list the precedence declarations in order of increasing (tighter-binding)
precedence.  Each precedence declaration consists
of \% keyword specifying associativity followed by a list of terminals.
The keywords are {\tt \%left}, {\tt \%right}, and {\tt \%nonassoc},
standing for their respective associativities.
\item[{\tt \%nodefault}]
The {\tt \%nodefault} declaration suppresses the generation of default
reductions.  If only one production can be reduced in a given state in
an LR table, it may be made the default action for the state.  An incorrect
reduction will be caught later when the parser attempts to shift the lookahead
terminal which caused the reduction. ML-Yacc usually produces programs and
verbose files with default reductions.  This saves a great deal of
space in representing the LR tables,but
sometimes it is useful for debugging and advanced
uses of the parser to suppress the generation of default reductions.
\item[{\tt \%pure}]
Include the {\tt \%pure} declaration if the semantic actions
are free of significant side-effects and always terminate.
\item[{\tt \%start}]
You may define the start symbol using
the {\tt \%start} declaration.  Otherwise the nonterminal for the
first rule will be used as the start nonterminal.
The keyword {\tt \%start} should be followed by the name of the starting
nonterminal.  This nonterminal should not be used on the right hand
side of any rules, to avoid conflicts between reducing to the start
symbol and shifting a terminal.  ML-Yacc will not prevent you
from using such grammars, but it will print a warning message.
\item[{\tt \%verbose}]

Include the {\tt \%verbose} declaration to produce a verbose
description of the LALR parser.   The name of this file is
the name of the specification file with a .desc'' appended to it.

This file has the following format:
\begin{enumerate}

\item A summary of errors found while generating the LALR tables.
\item A detailed description of all errors.
\item A description of the states of the parser.  Each state
is preceded by a list of conflicts in the state.

\end{enumerate}
\end{description}

\subsection{Declarations for improving error-recovery.}

These optional declarations improve error-recovery:

\begin{description}
\item[{\tt \%keyword}]
Specify all keywords in a grammar here.  The {\tt \%keyword}
should be followed by a list
of terminal names.   Fixes involving keywords are generally dangerous;
they are prone to substantially altering the syntactic meaning
of the program.  They are subject to a more rigorous parse check than
other fixes.

\item[{\tt \%prefer}]
List terminals to prefer for insertion after the {\tt \%prefer}.
Corrections which insert a terminal on this list will be chosen over
other corrections, all other things being equal.
\item[{\tt \%subst}]
This declaration should be followed by a list of clauses of the
form \{terminal\} {\tt for} \{terminal\}, where items on the list are
separated using a {\tt |}.  Substitution corrections on this list
will be chosen over all other corrections except preferred insertion
corrections (listed above), all other things being equal.
\item[{\tt \%change}]
This is a generalization of {\tt \%prefer}  and {\tt \%subst}.
It takes a the following syntax:
\begin{quote}
${\it tokens}_{1a}$ \verb|->| ${\it tokens}_{1b}$ \verb+|+ ${\it tokens}_{2a}$ \verb|->| ${\it tokens}_{2b}$ {\it etc.}
\end{quote}
where each {\it tokens} is a (possibly empty) seqence of tokens.  The
idea is that any instance of ${\it tokens}_{1a}$ can be corrected'' to
${\it tokens}_{1b}$, and so on.  For example, to suggest that a good
error correction to try is \verb|IN ID END| (which is useful for the
ML parser), write,
\begin{verbatim}
%change   ->  IN ID END
\end{verbatim}
\item[{\tt \%value}]
The error-correction algorithm may also insert terminals with values.
You must supply a value for such a terminal. The keyword
should be followed by a terminal and a piece of
code (enclosed in parentheses) that when evaluated supplies the value.
There must be a separate {\tt \%value} declaration for each terminal with
a value that you wish may be inserted or substituted in an error correction.
The code for the value is not evaluated until the parse is
successful.

Do not specify a {\tt \%value} for terminals without
values. This will result in a type error in the program produced by
ML-Yacc.
\end{description}

\subsection{Rules}

All rules are declared in the final section, after the last {\tt \%\%}
delimiter.  A rule consists of a left hand side nonterminal, followed by
a colon, followed by a list of right hand side clauses.

The right hand side clauses should be separated by bars ({\tt |}'').  Each
clause consists of a list of nonterminal and terminal symbols, followed
by an optional {\tt \%prec} declaration, and then followed by the code to be
evaluated when the rule is reduced.

The optional {\tt \%prec} consists of the keyword {\tt \%prec} followed by a
terminal whose precedence should be used as the precedence of the
rule.

The values of those symbols on the right hand side which have values are
available inside the code.  Positions for all the symbols are also
available.
Each value has the general form \{symbol name\}\{n+1\}, where \{n\} is the
number of occurrences of the symbol to the left of the symbol.  If
the symbol occurs only once in the rule, \{symbol name\} may also
be used.
The positions are given by \{symbol~name\}\{n+1\}left and
\{symbol~name\}\{n+1\}right.  where \{n\} is defined as before.
The position for a null rhs of
a production is assumed to be the leftmost position of the lookahead
terminal which is causing the reduction. This position value is
available in {\tt defaultPos}.

The value to which the code evaluates is used as the value of the
nonterminal.  The type of the value and the nonterminal must match.
The value is ignored if the nonterminal has no value, but is still
evaluated for side-effects.

\section{Producing files with ML-Yacc.}

ML-Yacc may be used from the interactive system or built as a
stand-alone program which may be run from the Unix command line.
See the file {\bf README} in the mlyacc directory for directions
on installing ML-Yacc.  We recommend thaat ML-Yacc be installed as
a stand-alone program.

If you are using the stand-alone version of ML-Yacc, invoke the
program sml-yacc'' with the name of the specifcation file.
If you are using  ML-Yacc in the interactive system, load the file
smlyacc.sml''.  The end result is a structure ParseGen, with one
value parseGen in it.  Apply parseGen to a string containing the
name of the specification file.

Two files will be created, one named by
attaching .sig'' to the name of the specification, the other named by
attaching .sml'' to the name of the specification.

\section{The lexical analyzer}

Let the name for
the parser given in the {\tt \%name} declaration be denoted by \{n\} and
the specification file name be denoted by \{spec name\}
The parser generator creates a functor named \{n\}LrValsFun for
the values needed for a particular parser.  This functor is placed
in \{spec name\}.sml.  This
functor contains a structure
Tokens which allows you to construct terminals from the appropriate
values.  The structure has a function for each terminal that takes a tuple
consisting of  the value for the terminal (if there is any), a leftmost
position for the terminal, and a rightmost position for the terminal and
constructs the terminal from these values.

A signature for the structure Tokens is created and placed in the .sig''
file created by ML-Yacc.  This signature is \{n\}\_TOKENS,
where \{n\} is
the name given in the parser specification.  A signature
\{n\}\_LRVALS is created for the structure produced by
applying \{n\}LrValsFun.

Use the signature \{n\}\_TOKENS to create a functor for the
lexical analyzer which takes the structure Tokens as an argument.  The
signature \{n\}\_TOKENS
will not change unless the {\tt \%term} declaration in a
specification is altered by adding terminals or
changing the types of terminals.  You do not need to recompile
the lexical analyzer functor each time the specification for
the parser is changed if the
signature \{n\}\_TOKENS does not change.

If you are using ML-Lex to create the lexical analyzer, you
can turn the lexer structure into a functor using the
{\tt \%header} allows the user to define the header for a structure body.

If the name of the parser in the specification were Calc, you
would add this declaration to the specification for the lexical
analyzer:
\begin{quote}
\tt
\begin{verbatim}
%header (functor CalcLexFun(structure Tokens : Calc_TOKENS))
\end{verbatim}
\end{quote}

You must define the following in the user definitions section:
\begin{quote}
\tt
\begin{verbatim}
type pos
\end{verbatim}
\end{quote}
This is the type of position values for terminals.  This type
must be the same as the one declared in the specification for
the grammar.  Note, however, that this type is not available
in the Tokens structure that parameterizes the lexer functor.

You must include the following code in the user definitions section of
the ML-Lex specification:
\begin{quote}
\tt
\begin{verbatim}
type svalue = Tokens.svalue
type ('a,'b) token = ('a,'b) Tokens.token
type lexresult  = (svalue,pos) token
\end{verbatim}
\end{quote}

These types are used to give lexers signatures.

You may use a lexer constructed using ML-Lex with the {\tt \%arg}
declaration, but you must follow special instructions for tying the parser
and lexer together.

\section{Creating the parser.}
\label{create-parser}
Let the name of the specification file be denoted by \{spec name\} and
the parser name in the specification be \{n\}.
To construct a parser, do the following:

\begin{enumerate}

\item Run ML-Yacc on the specification file for a grammar.
\item Run ML-Lex to create the lexical analyzer.
\item Load the file base.sml from the ML-Yacc directory.  This file contains
the common modules.  If you have already loaded this file, you do not need
\item Load the file \{spec name\}.sig produced by ML-Yacc.
\item Load the file produced by ML-Lex.
\item Load the file \{spec name\}.sml by ML-Yacc.
\item Apply functors to create the parser:

\end{enumerate}
\begin{quote}
\tt
\begin{verbatim}
structure {n}LrVals =
{n}LrValsFun(structure Token = LrParser.Token)
structure {n}Lex =
{n}LexFun(structure Tokens =
{n}LrVals.Tokens)
structure {n}Parser=
Join(structure ParserData = {n}LrVals.ParserData
structure Lex={n}Lex
structure LrParser=LrParser)
\end{verbatim}
\end{quote}
If the lexer was created using the {\tt \%arg} declaration in ML-Lex,
the last step
must be changed to use another functor called JoinWithArg:
\begin{quote}
\tt
\begin{verbatim}
structure {n}Parser=
JoinWithArg
(structure ParserData={n}LrVals.ParserData
structure Lex={n}Lex
structure LrParser=LrParser)
\end{verbatim}
\end{quote}

The following outline summarizes this process:
\begin{quote}
\tt
\begin{verbatim}
(* available at top level *)

TOKEN
LR_TABLE
STREAM
LR_PARSER
PARSER_DATA
structure LrParser : LR_PARSER

(* printed out in .sig file created by parser generator: *)

signature {n}_TOKENS =
sig
structure Token : TOKEN
type svalue
val PLUS : 'pos * 'pos ->
(svalue,'pos) Token.token
val INTLIT : int * 'pos * 'pos ->
(svalue,'pos) Token.token
...
end

signature {n}_LRVALS =
sig
structure Tokens : {n}_TOKENS
structure ParserData : PARSER_DATA
sharing ParserData.Token = Tokens.Token
sharing type ParserData.svalue = Tokens.svalue
end

(* printed out by lexer generator: *)

functor {n}LexFun(structure Tokens : {n}_TOKENS)=
struct
...
end

(* printed out in .sml file created by parser generator: *)

functor {n}LrValsFun(structure Token : TOKENS) =
struct

structure ParserData =
struct
structure Token = Token

(* code in header section of specification *)

type svalue
type result
type pos
structure Actions = ...
structure EC = ...
val table = ...
end
structure Tokens : {n}_TOKENS =
struct
structure Token = ParserData.Token
type svalue
fun PLUS(p1,p2) = ...
fun INTLIT(i,p1,p2) = ...
end
end

(* to be done by the user: *)

structure {n}LrVals =
{n}LrValsFun(structure Token = LrParser.Token)
structure {n}Lex =
{n}LexFun(structure Tokens =
{n}LrVals.Tokens)
structure {n}Parser =
Join(structure Lex = {n}Lex
ParserData = {n}ParserData
structure LrParser = LrParser)
\end{verbatim}
\end{quote}

\section{Using the parser}
\subsection{Parser Structure Signatures}
The final structure created will have the signature PARSER:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
signature PARSER =
sig
structure Token : TOKEN
structure Stream : STREAM
exception ParseError

type pos    (* pos is the type of line numbers *)
type result (* value returned by the parser *)
type arg    (* type of the user-supplied argument  *)
type svalue (* the types of semantic values *)

val makeLexer : (int -> string) ->
(svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream

val parse :
int * ((svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream) *
(string * pos * pos -> unit) * arg ->
result * (svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream
val sameToken :
(svalue,pos) Token.token * (svalue,pos) Token.token ->
bool
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}
or the signature ARG\_PARSER if you used {\tt \%arg} to create the lexer.
This signature differs from ARG\_PARSER in that it
which has an additional type {\tt lexarg} and a different type
for {\tt makeLexer}:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
type lexarg
val makeLexer : (int -> string)  -> lexarg ->
(svalue,pos) token stream
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

The signature STREAM is:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
(* STREAM: signature for a lazy stream.*)

signature STREAM =
sig type 'a stream
val streamify : (unit -> '_a) -> '_a stream
val cons : '_a * '_a stream -> '_a stream
val get : '_a stream -> '_a * '_a stream
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

\subsection{Using the parser structure}

The parser structure converts the lexing function produced by
ML-Lex into a function which creates a lazy stream of tokens.  The
function {\tt makeLexer} takes the same values as the corresponding
{\tt makeLexer} created by ML-Lex, but returns a stream of tokens
instead of a function which yields tokens.

The function parse takes the token stream and some other arguments that
are described below and parses the token stream.  It returns a pair composed
of the value associated with the start symbol and the rest of
the token stream.  The rest of the token stream includes the
end-of-parse symbol which caused the reduction of some rule
to the start symbol.  The function parse raises the
exception ParseError if a syntax error occurs which it cannot fix.

The lazy stream is implemented by the {\tt Stream} structure.
The function {\tt streamify} converts a conventional implementation
of a stream into a lazy stream.  In a conventional implementation
of a stream, a stream consists of a position in a list of
values.  Fetching a value from a stream returns the
value associated with the position and updates the position to
the next element in the list of values.  The fetch is a side-effecting
operation.  In a lazy stream, a fetch returns a value and a new
stream, without a side-effect which updates the position value.
This means that a stream can be repeatedly re-evaluated without
affecting the values that it returns.  If $f$ is the function
that is passed to {\tt streamify}, $f$ is called only as many
times as necessary to construct the portion of the list of values
that is actually used.

Parse also takes an integer giving the maximum amount of lookahead permitted
for the error-correcting parse, a function to print error messages,
and a value of type arg.  The maximum amount of lookahead for interactive
systems should be zero.  In this case, no attempt is made to correct any
syntax errors.  For non-interactive systems, try 15.  The
function to print error messages takes a tuple of values consisting
of the left and right positions of the terminal which caused the error
and an error message.   If the {\tt \%arg} declaration is not used, the
value of type arg should be a value of type unit.

The function sameToken can be used to see if two tokens
denote the same terminal, irregardless of any values that the
tokens carry.  It is useful if you have multiple end-of-parse
symbols and must check which end-of-parse symbol has been left on the
front of the token stream.

The types have the following meanings.  The type {\tt arg} is the type
of the additional argument to the parser, which is specified by the
{\tt \%arg} declaration in the ML-Yacc specification.  The type
{\tt lexarg} is the optional argument to lexers, and is specified by
the {\tt \%arg} declaration in an ML-Lex specifcation.  The type {\tt pos}
is the type of line numbers, and is specified by the {\tt \%pos} declaration
in an ML-Yacc specification and defined in the user declarations
section of the ML-Lex specification.  The type {\tt result} is
the type associated with the start symbol in the ML-Yacc specification.

\section{Examples}

See the directory examples for examples of parsers constructed using
ML-Yacc.  Here is a small sample parser and lexer for an interactive
calculator, from the directory examples/calc, along with code for
creating a parsing function.  The calculator reads one or
more expressions from the standard input, evaluates the expression, and
prints its value.  Expressions should be separated by semicolons, and may
also be ended by using an end-of-file.  This shows
how to construct an interactive parser which reads a top-level declaration
and processes the declaration before reading the next top-level
declaration.

\subsection{Sample Grammar}
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
(* Sample interactive calculator for ML-Yacc *)

fun lookup "bogus" = 10000
| lookup s = 0

%%

%eop EOF SEMI

(* %pos declares the type of positions for terminals.
Each symbol has an associated left and right position. *)

%pos int

%left SUB PLUS
%left TIMES DIV
%right CARAT

%term ID of string | NUM of int | PLUS | TIMES | PRINT |
SEMI | EOF | CARAT | DIV | SUB
%nonterm EXP of int | START of int option

%name Calc

%subst PRINT for ID
%prefer PLUS TIMES DIV SUB
%keyword PRINT SEMI

%noshift EOF
%value ID ("bogus")
%nodefault
%verbose
%%

(* the parser returns the value associated with the expression *)

START : PRINT EXP (print EXP;
print "\n";
flush_out std_out; SOME EXP)
| EXP (SOME EXP)
| (NONE)
EXP : NUM             (NUM)
| ID              (lookup ID)
| EXP PLUS EXP    (EXP1+EXP2)
| EXP TIMES EXP   (EXP1*EXP2)
| EXP DIV EXP     (EXP1 div EXP2)
| EXP SUB EXP     (EXP1-EXP2)
| EXP CARAT EXP   (let fun e (m,0) = 1
| e (m,l) = m*e(m,l-1)
in e (EXP1,EXP2)
end)
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}
\subsection{Sample Lexer}
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
structure Tokens = Tokens

type pos = int
type svalue = Tokens.svalue
type ('a,'b) token = ('a,'b) Tokens.token
type lexresult= (svalue,pos) token

val pos = ref 0
val eof = fn () => Tokens.EOF(!pos,!pos)
val error = fn (e,l : int,_) =>
output(std_out,"line " ^ (makestring l) ^
": " ^ e ^ "\n")
%%
alpha=[A-Za-z];
digit=[0-9];
ws = [\ \t];
%%
\n       => (pos := (!pos) + 1; lex());
{ws}+    => (lex());
{digit}+ => (Tokens.NUM
(revfold (fn (a,r) => ord(a)-ord("0")+10*r)
(explode yytext) 0,
!pos,!pos));
"+"      => (Tokens.PLUS(!pos,!pos));
"*"      => (Tokens.TIMES(!pos,!pos));
";"      => (Tokens.SEMI(!pos,!pos));
{alpha}+ => (if yytext="print"
then Tokens.PRINT(!pos,!pos)
else Tokens.ID(yytext,!pos,!pos)
);
"-"      => (Tokens.SUB(!pos,!pos));
"^"      => (Tokens.CARAT(!pos,!pos));
"/"      => (Tokens.DIV(!pos,!pos));
"."      => (error ("ignoring bad character "^yytext,!pos,!pos);
lex());
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}
\subsection{Top-level code}

You must follow instructions one through six in Section~\ref{create-parser}
to create the parser and lexer functors and load them.  After you have
done this, you must then apply the functors to produce the {\tt CalcParser}
structure.  The code for doing this is shown below.
\begin{verbatim}
structure CalcLrVals =
CalcLrValsFun(structure Token = LrParser.Token)
structure CalcLex =
CalcLexFun(structure Tokens = CalcLrVals.Tokens);
structure CalcParser =
Join(structure LrParser = LrParser
structure ParserData = CalcLrVals.ParserData
structure Lex = CalcLex)
\end{verbatim}

Now we need a function which given a lexer invokes the parser.  The
function {\tt invoke} does this.

\begin{verbatim}
val invoke = fn lexstream =>
let val print_error = fn (s,i:int,_) =>
output(std_out,"Error, line " ^
(makestring i) ^ ", " ^ s ^ "\n")
in CalcParser.parse(0,lexstream,print_error,())
end
\end{verbatim}

We also need a function which reads a line of input from the terminal
\footnote{Standard ML of New Jersey has a function input\_line in its
built-in environment that also does this.}:
\begin{verbatim}
val input_line = fn f =>
let fun loop result =
let val c = input (f,1)
val result = c :: result
in if String.size c = 0 orelse c = "\n" then
String.implode (rev result)
else loop result
end
in loop nil
end
\end{verbatim}

Finally, we need a function which can read one or more expressions from
the standard input.  The function {\tt parse}, shown below, does this.
It runs the calculator on the standard input and terminates
when an end-of-file is encountered.

\begin{verbatim}
val parse = fn () =>
let val lexer = CalcParser.makeLexer (fn _ => input_line std_in)
val dummyEOF = CalcLrVals.Tokens.EOF(0,0)
val dummySEMI = CalcLrVals.Tokens.SEMI(0,0)
fun loop lexer =
let val (result,lexer) = invoke lexer
val (nextToken,lexer) = CalcParser.Stream.get lexer
val _ = case result
of SOME r =>
output(std_out,
"result = " ^ (makestring r) ^ "\n")
| NONE => ()
in if CalcParser.sameToken(nextToken,dummyEOF) then ()
else loop lexer
end
in loop lexer
end
\end{verbatim}

\section{Signatures}

This section contains signatures used by ML-Yacc for structures in
the file base.sml, functors and structures that it generates, and for
the signatures of lexer structures supplied by you.

\subsection{Parsing structure signatures}

\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
(* STREAM: signature for a lazy stream.*)

signature STREAM =
sig type 'a stream
val streamify : (unit -> '_a) -> '_a stream
val cons : '_a * '_a stream -> '_a stream
val get : '_a stream -> '_a * '_a stream
end

(* LR_TABLE: signature for an LR Table.*)

signature LR_TABLE =
sig
datatype ('a,'b) pairlist = EMPTY
| PAIR of 'a * 'b * ('a,'b) pairlist
datatype state = STATE of int
datatype term = T of int
datatype nonterm = NT of int
datatype action = SHIFT of state
| REDUCE of int
| ACCEPT
| ERROR
type table

val numStates : table -> int
val numRules : table -> int
val describeActions : table -> state ->
(term,action) pairlist * action
val describeGoto : table -> state -> (nonterm,state) pairlist
val action : table -> state * term -> action
val goto : table -> state * nonterm -> state
val initialState : table -> state
exception Goto of state * nonterm

val mkLrTable :
{actions : ((term,action) pairlist * action) array,
gotos : (nonterm,state) pairlist array,
numStates : int, numRules : int,
initialState : state} -> table
end

(* TOKEN: signature for the internal structure of a token.*)

signature TOKEN =
sig
structure LrTable : LR_TABLE
datatype ('a,'b) token = TOKEN of LrTable.term *
('a * 'b * 'b)
val sameToken : ('a,'b) token * ('a,'b) token -> bool
end

(* LR_PARSER: signature for a polymorphic LR parser *)

signature LR_PARSER =
sig
structure Stream: STREAM
structure LrTable : LR_TABLE
structure Token : TOKEN

sharing LrTable = Token.LrTable

exception ParseError

val parse:
{table : LrTable.table,
lexer : ('_b,'_c) Token.token Stream.stream,
arg: 'arg,
saction : int *
'_c *
(LrTable.state * ('_b * '_c * '_c)) list *
'arg ->
LrTable.nonterm *
('_b * '_c * '_c) *
((LrTable.state *('_b * '_c * '_c)) list),
void : '_b,
ec : {is_keyword : LrTable.term -> bool,
noShift : LrTable.term -> bool,
preferred_subst:LrTable.term -> LrTable.term list,
preferred_insert : LrTable.term -> bool,
errtermvalue : LrTable.term -> '_b,
showTerminal : LrTable.term -> string,
terms: LrTable.term list,
error : string * '_c * '_c -> unit
},
(* error correction *)
} -> '_b * (('_b,'_c) Token.token Stream.stream)
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

\subsection{Lexers}

Lexers for use with ML-Yacc's output must match one of these signatures.

\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
signature LEXER =
sig
structure UserDeclarations :
sig
type ('a,'b) token
type pos
type svalue
end
val makeLexer : (int -> string) -> unit ->
(UserDeclarations.svalue,
UserDeclarations.pos) UserDeclarations.token
end

(* ARG_LEXER: the %arg option of ML-Lex allows users to produce
lexers which also take an argument before yielding a function
from unit to a token.
*)

signature ARG_LEXER =
sig
structure UserDeclarations :
sig
type ('a,'b) token
type pos
type svalue
type arg
end
val makeLexer : (int -> string) -> UserDeclarations.arg ->
unit ->
(UserDeclarations.svalue,
UserDeclarations.pos) UserDeclarations.token
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

\subsection{Signatures for the functor produced by ML-Yacc}

The following signature is used in signatures generated by
ML-Yacc:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
(* PARSER_DATA: the signature of ParserData structures in
{n}LrValsFun functor produced by ML-Yacc. All such structures
match this signature.*)

signature PARSER_DATA =
sig
type pos       (* the type of line numbers *)
type svalue    (* the type of semantic values *)
type arg       (* the type of the user-supplied *)
(* argument to the parser *)
type result

structure LrTable : LR_TABLE
structure Token : TOKEN
sharing Token.LrTable = LrTable

structure Actions :
sig
val actions : int * pos *
(LrTable.state * (svalue * pos * pos)) list * arg ->
LrTable.nonterm * (svalue * pos * pos) *
((LrTable.state *(svalue * pos * pos)) list)
val void : svalue
val extract : svalue -> result
end

(* structure EC contains information used to improve
error recovery in an error-correcting parser *)

structure EC :
sig
val is_keyword : LrTable.term -> bool
val noShift : LrTable.term -> bool
val preferred_subst: LrTable.term -> LrTable.term list
val preferred_insert : LrTable.term -> bool
val errtermvalue : LrTable.term -> svalue
val showTerminal : LrTable.term -> string
val terms: LrTable.term list
end

(* table is the LR table for the parser *)

val table : LrTable.table
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

ML-Yacc generates these two signatures:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
(* printed out in .sig file created by parser generator: *)

signature {n}_TOKENS =
sig
type ('a,'b) token
type svalue
...
end

signature {n}_LRVALS =
sig
structure Tokens : {n}_TOKENS
structure ParserData : PARSER_DATA
sharing type ParserData.Token.token = Tokens.token
sharing type ParserData.svalue = Tokens.svalue
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}
\subsection{User parser signatures}

Parsers created by applying the Join functor will match this signature:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
signature PARSER =
sig
structure Token : TOKEN
structure Stream : STREAM
exception ParseError

type pos    (* pos is the type of line numbers *)
type result (* value returned by the parser *)
type arg    (* type of the user-supplied argument  *)
type svalue (* the types of semantic values *)

val makeLexer : (int -> string) ->
(svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream

val parse :
int * ((svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream) *
(string * pos * pos -> unit) * arg ->
result * (svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream
val sameToken :
(svalue,pos) Token.token * (svalue,pos) Token.token ->
bool
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}
Parsers created by applying the JoinWithArg functor will match this
signature:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
signature ARG_PARSER =
sig
structure Token : TOKEN
structure Stream : STREAM
exception ParseError

type arg
type lexarg
type pos
type result
type svalue

val makeLexer : (int -> string) -> lexarg ->
(svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream
val parse : int *
((svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream) *
(string * pos * pos -> unit) *
arg ->
result * (svalue,pos) Token.token Stream.stream
val sameToken :
(svalue,pos) Token.token * (svalue,pos) Token.token ->
bool
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

\section{Sharing constraints}

Let the name of the parser be denoted by \{n\}.  If
you have not created a lexer which takes an argument, and
you have followed the directions given earlier for creating the parser, you
will have the following structures with the following signatures:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
(* always present *)

signature TOKEN
signature LR_TABLE
signature STREAM
signature LR_PARSER
signature PARSER_DATA
structure LrParser : LR_PARSER

(* signatures generated by ML-Yacc *)

signature {n}_TOKENS
signature {n}_LRVALS

(* structures created by you *)

structure {n}LrVals : {n}_LRVALS
structure Lex : LEXER
structure {n}Parser : PARSER
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

The following sharing constraints will exist:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
sharing {n}Parser.Token = LrParser.Token =
{n}LrVals.ParserData.Token
sharing {n}Parser.Stream = LrParser.Stream

sharing type {n}Parser.arg = {n}LrVals.ParserData.arg
sharing type {n}Parser.result = {n}LrVals.ParserData.result
sharing type {n}Parser.pos = {n}LrVals.ParserData.pos =
Lex.UserDeclarations.pos
sharing type {n}Parser.svalue = {n}LrVals.ParserData.svalue =
{n}LrVals.Tokens.svalue = Lex.UserDeclarations.svalue
sharing type {n}Parser.Token.token =
{n}LrVals.ParserData.Token.token =
LrParser.Token.token =
Lex.UserDeclarations.token

sharing {n}LrVals.LrTable = LrParser.LrTable

\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

If you used a lexer which takes an argument, then you will
have:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
structure ARG_LEXER
structure {n}Parser : PARSER

sharing type {n}Parser.lexarg = Lex.UserDeclarations.arg
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

\section{Hints}
\subsection{Multiple start symbols}
To have multiple start symbols, define a dummy token for each
start symbol.  Then define a start symbol which derives the
multiple start symbols with dummy tokens placed in front of
them.  When you start the parser you must place a dummy token
on the front of the lexer stream to select a start symbol
from which to begin parsing.

Assuming that you have followed the naming conventions used before,
create the lexer using the makeLexer function in the \{n\}Parser structure.
Then, place the dummy token on the front of the lexer:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
val dummyLexer =
{n}Parser.Stream.cons
({n}LrVals.Tokens.{dummy token name}
({dummy lineno},{dummy lineno}),
lexer)
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}
You have to pass a Tokens structure to the lexer.  This Tokens structure
contains functions which construct tokens from values and line numbers.
So to create your dummy token just apply the appropriate token constructor
function from this Tokens structure to a value (if there is one) and the
line numbers.   This is exactly what you do in the lexer to construct tokens.

Then you must place the dummy token on the front of your lex stream.
The structure \{n\}Parser contains a structure Stream which implements
lazy streams.  So you just cons the dummy token on to stream returned
by makeLexer.
\subsection{Functorizing things further}

You may wish to functorize things even further.  Two possibilities
are turning the lexer and parser structures into closed functors,
that is, functors which do not refer to types or values defined
outside their body or outside their parameter structures (except
for pervasive types and values), and creating a functor which
encapsulates the code necessary to invoke the parser.

Use the {\tt \%header} declarations in ML-Lex and ML-Yacc to create
closed functors.  See section~\ref{optional-def} of this manual
and section 4 of the manual for ML-Lex for complete descriptions of these
declarations.  If you do this, you should also parameterize these
structures by the types of line numbers.  The type will be an
abstract type, so you will also need to define all the valid
operations on the type.  The signature INTERFACE, defined below,
shows one possible signature for a structure defining the line
number type and associated operations.

If you wish to encapsulate the code necessary to invoke the
parser, your functor generally will have form:
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
functor Encapsulate(
structure Parser : PARSER
structure Interface : INTERFACE
sharing type Parser.arg = Interface.arg
sharing type Parser.pos = Interface.pos
sharing type Parser.result = ...
structure Tokens : {parser name}_TOKENS
sharing type Tokens.token = Parser.Token.token
sharing type Tokens.svalue = Parser.svalue) =
struct
...
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

The signature INTERFACE, defined below, is a possible signature for
a structure
defining the types
of line numbers and arguments (types pos and arg, respectively)
along with operations for them.  You need this structure
because
these types will be abstract types inside the body of your
functor.
\begin{tt}
\begin{verbatim}
signature INTERFACE =
sig
type pos
val line : pos ref
val reset : unit -> unit
val next : unit -> unit
val error : string * pos * pos -> unit

type arg
val nothing : arg
end
\end{verbatim}
\end{tt}

The directory example/fol contains a sample parser in which
the code for tying together the lexer and parser has been
encapsulated in a functor.

\section{Acknowledgements}

Nick Rothwell wrote an SLR table generator in 1988 which inspired the
initial work on an ML parser generator.  Bruce Duba and David
parser.  Thanks go to all the users at Carnegie Mellon who beta-tested
this version.  Their comments and questions led to the creation of
this manual and helped improve it.

\section{Bugs}

There is a slight difference in syntax between ML-Lex and ML-Yacc.
In ML-Lex, semantic actions must be followed by a semicolon but
in ML-Yacc semantic actions cannot be followed by a semicolon.
The syntax should be the same.  ML-Lex also produces structures with
two different signatures, but it should produce structures with just
one signature.  This would simplify some things.

\begin{thebibliography}{9}

\bibitem{bf} A Practical Method for LR and LL Syntactic Error
Diagnosis and Recovery'', M. Burke and G. Fisher,
ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and
Systems, Vol. 9, No. 2, April 1987, pp. 164-167.
\bibitem{ahu} A. Aho, R. Sethi, J. Ullman, {\em Compilers: Principles,