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View of /sml/trunk/src/smlnj-c/README

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Revision 223 - (download) (annotate)
Sat Apr 17 16:27:01 1999 UTC (22 years, 5 months ago) by monnier
Original Path: sml/branches/SMLNJ/src/smlnj-c/README
File size: 6401 byte(s)
version 110.11
Notes on the rudimentary SML/NJ C interface rooted at this directory.

This file provides installation instructions and details on adding
ML-callable C functions to the SML/NJ runtime system using the SML/NJ C 
interface.  With this interface one can call C functions that are 
passed (and return) integers, floats, doubles, arrays, structs and unions,
and functions.  C functions may also return arbitrary C pointers to ML which 
the ML program may supply as arguments to C functions at later times.

The file 'smlnj-c.ps' is a paper in the './doc' directory describes the 
design, implementation, and operation of the C interface.  It contains
examples of calling C functions from SML/NJ.  

Direct bugs, comments, questions to 'sml-nj@research.bell-labs.com'

1 Installation

The interface consists of two parts: a C part in the SML/NJ runtime and
an ML part that must be explicitly loaded (into SML/NJ running with 
the C-interface runtime).  The C part is already contained in SML/NJ's
C runtime, but must be explicitly configured.

1.1 Building the C-interface runtime

The runtime system contains the C interface in the 
'src/runtime/c-libs/smlnj-ccalls' directory.  You must explicitly 
build a runtime that supports this interface as follows:
If the file 'runtime/objs/mk.<arch>-<os>-ccalls' does not
exist, create one by:

	(0) cloning 'mk.<arch>-<os>' as 'mk.<arch>-<os>-ccalls'
	(1) adding -DC_CALLS to the makefile's DEF variable
	(2) making sure the makefile defines XCLIBS as:
		XCLIBS = ../c-libs/smlnj-ccalls/libsmlnj-ccalls.a
	(3) making sure XCLIBS is passed to 'make' for the 'all:' 
	    target as:

A sample makefile (mk.mipseb-irix5-c-calls) is attached to this file.

Build a C-interface runtime by issuing the command
	make -f mk.<arch>-<os>-ccalls
in the 'runtime/objs' directory.  Move the resulting 'run.<arch>-<os>'
file to the appropriate directory (usually 'bin/.run').

The second part of the SML/NJ-C interface is a library of ML code that 
declares data types for constructing data that can be passed to C functions.  
This part also provides the facilities for registering the C functions that 
ML can call.  This part of the interface must be loaded into the SML/NJ system
before C functions can be registered and then called.

1.2 Installing the SML Interface Library

The ML interface library resides in this directory.  The important files
are: 'c-calls.sig.sml', 'c-calls.sml', and 'cc-info.<compiler>.sml'.
The 'c-calls' files are the interface.  The interface is a functor
(CCalls) parameterized by info about the underlying C compiler (via
the 'cc-info.<compiler>.sml' files).  

cc-info files are SML structures that supply the C interface
(CCalls functor) with information about the C compiler.

The shell script gen-cc-info can be used to automatically generate
a cc-info.<compiler>.sml for given compiler.  Usage: 
	 gen-cc-info cc-to-use name-for-structure >oufile
 i.e.: % gen-cc-info gcc GCCInfoX86Linux >cc-info.x86-linux.sml

(make sure you're running on the named platform when you give the
gen-cc-info command!).

Alternately, cc-info files can be made manually.  See, for example,
cc-info.defaults.sml (should be good for most 32-bit platforms) 
or cc-info.mipseb-irix5.sml

The 'sources.cm' file allows the SML/NJ Compilation Manager (CM) to
build the interface.  At an sml-cm prompt, do a 'CM.make()'.

Alternately, the file 'load.sml' shows how to put it all together.  
"Using" it at the top level creates an instance on an interface 
(and utility functions used by that interface).

2 Usage

2.1 Adding C Functions

Installation of the runtime as described above links in the C functions 
in 'src/runtime/c-libs/c-calls/cutil.c'.  The C functions defined 
in 'cutil.c' are bound to names that ML programs can find through 
the file 'cutil-cfuns.c'.  Each function imported to SML/NJ from 
'cutil.c' has a line such as:

	C_CALLS_CFUNC("ptos",	ptos,	char *,	(void *))

in 'cutil-cfuns.h'.  This line registers the C function 'ptos'
with name 'ptos', return type 'int', and arg type(s) 'char *'
with the SML-NJ runtime.  A C_CALLS_CFUNC line must exist for every 
user C function callable from ML.  

The file 'cutil-cfuns.h' must be included by the file 'cfun-list.h'.
When adding a set of related functions, it is useful to place their
C_CALLS_FUNC entries in a '*-cfuns.h' file and to then include this
file from 'cfun-list.h'.  For example, to add a new file 'f.c' of C 
functions, create a file 'f-cfuns.h' with C_CALLS_CFUNC definitions for 
all functions exported by 'f.c'.  Add a '#include "f-cfuns.h"' to 
'cfun-list.h'.  Edit 'makefile' to build 'f.o', i.e. add 'f.o' to the 
makefile's C_CALLS_OBJS variable and add a rule for 'f.o' 
(see, for example, the rule for 'cutil.o').

2.2 Linking in C libraries

Adding a C function may require linking against some C library
not currently linked against by the SML-NJ runtime.  These libraries
can be linked against as follows.

Edit 'src/runtime/objs/mk.<arch>-<os>-calls' and alter the LD_LIBS variable
to include the desired libraries.  For example, 

	LD_LIBS =	-lX11 -lm -lmalloc

links in the malloc, math and X11 libs.

2.3 Calling C Functions from ML

Refer to the paper 'smlnj-c.ps' for instructions on registering and 
calling C functions that have been added to the runtime system.

The file 'cutil.sml' in this directory provides a few examples.

3.0 Sample "mk.<arch>-<os>-ccalls" file.

# mk.mipseb-irix5-ccalls

SHELL	= /bin/sh

CC =		cc -xansi -D__STDC__
CPP =		/usr/lib/acpp
AS =		/bin/as -nocpp
RANLIB =	ar ts

#XOBJS =	xmonitor.o
#LD_LIBS =	-lX11_s -lmalloc
XCLIBS =         ../c-libs/smlnj-ccalls/libsmlnj-ccalls.a
LD_LIBS =	-lmalloc
VERSION	=	v-mipseb-irix5
RUNTIME =	run.mipseb-irix5


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